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  • MinireviewSeptember 30, 2014

    109 582 2342

    Regulation of Wound Healing and Fibrosis by Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1

    Robin J Ruthenborg, Jae-Jun Ban, Anum Wazir, Norihiko Takeda, and Jung-whan Kim

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(9): 637-643 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0150
    Abstract

    Abstract : Wound healing is a complex multi-step process that requires spatial and temporal orchestration of cellular and non-cellular components. Hypoxia is one of the prominent microenvironmental factors in tissue injury and wound healing. Hypoxic responses, mainly mediated by a master transcription factor of oxygen homeostasis, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), have been shown to be critically involved in virtually all processes of wound healing and remodeling. Yet, mechanisms underlying hypoxic regulation of wound healing are still poorly understood. Better understanding of how the wound healing process is regulated by the hypoxic microenvironment and HIF-1 signaling pathway will provide insight into the development of a novel therapeutic strategy for impaired wound healing conditions such as diabetic wound and fibrosis. In this review, we will discuss recent studies illuminating the roles of HIF-1 in physiologic and pathologic wound repair and further, the therapeutic potentials of HIF-1 stabilization or inhibition.

  • MinireviewSeptember 30, 2014

    12 234 1531

    New Links between mRNA Polyadenylation and Diverse Nuclear Pathways

    Dafne Campigli Di Giammartino, and James L Manley

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(9): 644-649 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0177
    Abstract

    Abstract : The 3′ ends of most eukaryotic messenger RNAs must undergo a maturation step that includes an endonuc-leolytic cleavage followed by addition of a polyadenylate tail. While this reaction is catalyzed by the action of only two enzymes it is supported by an unexpectedly large number of proteins. This complexity reflects the necessity of coordinating this process with other nuclear events, and growing evidence indicates that even more factors than previously thought are necessary to connect 3′ processing to additional cellular pathways. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the molecular machinery involved in this step of mRNA maturation, focusing on new core and auxiliary proteins that connect polyadenylation to splicing, DNA damage, transcription and cancer.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    11 265 644
    Abstract

    Abstract : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neural cells to treat nervous system diseases. Magnetic resonance is an ideal means for cell tracking through labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). However, no studies have described the neural differentiation ability of SPIO-labeled MSCs, which is the foundation for cell therapy and cell tracking in vivo. Our results showed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) labeled in vitro with SPIO can be induced into neural-like cells without affecting the viability and labeling efficiency. The cellular uptake of SPIO was maintained after labeled BM-MSCs differentiated into neural-like cells, which were the basis for transplanted cells that can be dynamically and non-invasively tracked in vivo by MRI. Moreover, the SPIO-labeled induced neural-like cells showed neural cell morphology and expressed related markers such as NSE, MAP-2. Furthermore, whole-cell patch clamp recording demonstrated that these neural-like cells exhibited electrophysiological properties of neurons. More importantly, there was no significant difference in the cellular viability and [Ca2+]i between the induced labeled and unlabeled neural-like cells. In this study, we show for the first time that SPIO-labeled MSCs retained their differentiation capacity and could differentiate into neural-like cells with high cell viability and a good cellular state in vitro.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    15 292 770

    Ginseng Gintonin Activates the Human Cardiac Delayed Rectifier K+ Channel: Involvement of Ca2+/Calmodulin Binding Sites

    Sun-Hye Choi, Byung-Hwan Lee, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Seok-Won Jung, Hyun-Sook Kim, Ho-Chul Shin, Jun-Hee Lee, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sung-Hee Hwang, Tal soo Ha, Hyun-Ji Kim, Hana Cho, and Seung-Yeol Nah

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(9): 656-663 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0087
    Abstract

    Abstract : Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca2+]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ (IKs) channel is a cardiac K+ channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating IKs channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human IKs channel activity by expressing human IKs channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the IKs channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 μg/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the IKs channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the IKs channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca2+]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on IKs channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K+ channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of IKs channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca2+]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    46 277 671
    Abstract

    Abstract : MiR-217 can function as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene depending on cell type. However, the function of miR-217 in lung cancer remains unclear to date. This study aims to evaluate the function of miR-217 in lung cancer and investigate its effect on the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to cisplatin. The expression of miR-217 was detected in 100 patients by real-time PCR. The effects of miR-217 overexpression on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of SPC-A-1 and A549 cells were investigated. The target gene of miR-217 was predicted by Targetscan online software, screened by dual luciferase reporter gene assay and demonstrated by Western blot. Finally, the effects of miR-217 up-regulation on the sensitivity of A549 cells to cisplatin were determined. The expression of miR-217 was significantly lower in lung cancer tissues than in noncancerous tissues (p < 0.001). The overexpression of miR-217 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion as well as promoted the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by targeting KRAS. The up-regulation of miR-217 enhanced the sensitivity of SPC-A-1 and A549 cells to cisplatin. In conclusion, miR-217 suppresses tumour development in lung cancer by targeting KRAS and enhances cell sensitivity to cisplatin. Our results encourage researchers to use cisplatin in combination with miR-217 to treat lung cancer. This regime might lead to low-dose cisplatin application and cisplatin side-effect reduction.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    9 359 647
    Abstract

    Abstract : The exact causes of cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain unknown despite extensive studies on PD.The identification of signaling and metabolic pathways involved in PD might provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying PD. The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induces cellular changes characteristic of PD, and MPP+-based models have been extensively used for PD studies. In this study, pathways that were significantly perturbed in MPP+-treated human neuroblastoma SH-EP cells were identified from genome-wide gene expression data for five time points (1.5, 3, 9, 12, and 24 h) after treatment. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing pathway showed significant perturbation at all time points. Perturbation of each of these pathways resulted in the common outcome of upregulation of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3). Genes involved in ER protein processing pathway included ubiquitin ligase complex genes and ER-associated degradation (ERAD)-related genes. Additionally, overexpression of DDIT3 might induce oxidative stress via glutathione depletion as a result of overexpression of CHAC1. This study suggests that upregulation of DDIT3 caused by perturbation of the MAPK signaling pathway and ER protein processing pathway might play a key role in MPP+-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, the toxicity signal of MPP+ resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction through inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain might feed back to the mitochondria via ER stress. This positive feedback could contribute to amplification of the death signal induced by MPP+.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    5 207 502

    Carboxypeptidase E Is a Novel Modulator of RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Hyun-Ju Kim, JungMin Hong, Hye-Jin Yoon, Young-Ran Yoon, and Shin-Yoon Kim

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(9): 685-690 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0179
    Abstract

    Abstract : Osteoclasts are large polykaryons that have the unique capacity to degrade bone and are generated by the differentiation of myeloid lineage progenitors. To identify the genes involved in osteoclast development, we performed microarray analysis, and we found that carboxypeptidase E (CPE), a prohormone processing enzyme, was highly upregulated in osteoclasts compared with their precursors, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Here, we demonstrate a novel role for CPE in receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. The overexpression of CPE in BMMs increases the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts and the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), which are key regulators in osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, employing CPE knockout mice, we show that CPE deficiency attenuates osteoclast formation. Together, our data suggest that CPE might be an important modulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    2 302 535
    Abstract

    Abstract : SCYL1-BP1 is thought to function in the p53 pathway through Mdm2 and hPirh2, and mutations in SCYL1-BP1 are associated with premature aging syndromes such as Geroderma Osteodysplasticum; however, these mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report significant alterations in miRNA expression levels when SCYL1-BP1 expression was inhibited by RNA interference in HEK293T cells. We functionally characterized the effects of potential kernel miRNA-target genes by miRNA-target network and protein-protein interaction network analysis. Importantly, we showed the diminished SCYL1-BP1 dramatically reduced the expression levels of EEA1, BMPR2 and BRCA2 in HEK293T cells. Thus, we infer that SCYL1-BP1 plays a critical function in HEK293T cell development and directly regulates miRNA-target genes, including, but not limited to, EEA1, BMPR2, and BRCA2, suggesting a new strategy for investigating the molecular mechanism of SCYL1-BP1.

  • ArticleSeptember 30, 2014

    14 243 610

    MTA1 Overexpression Induces Cisplatin Resistance Innasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Promoting Cancer Stem Cells Properties

    Xiaohua Feng, Qianbing Zhang, Songxin Xia, Bing Xia, Yue Zhang, Xubin Deng, Wenmei Su, and Jianqing Huang

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(9): 699-704 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0029
    Abstract

    Abstract : Themetastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA1) oncogene hasbeen suggested to be involved in the regulation of cancer progression. However, there is still no direct evidence that MTA1 regulates cisplatin (CDDP) resistance, as well as cancer stem cell properties. In this study, we found that MTA1 was enriched in CNE1/CDDP cells. Knock down of MTA1 in CNE1/CDDP cells reversed CSCs properties and CDDP resistance. However, ectopic expression of MTA1 in CNE1 cells induced CSCs phenotypes and CDDP insensitivity. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of MTA1-induced CSCs properties and CDDP resistance were reversed in CNE1 cells after inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002. In addition, MTA1 expression and Akt activity in CNE1/CDDP cells was much higher than that in CNE1 cells. These results suggested that MTA1 may play a critical role in promoting CDDP resistance in NPC cells by regulatingcancer stem cell properties via thePI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our findings suggested that MTA1 may be a potential target for overcoming CDDP resistance in NPC therapy.

Mol. Cells
Aug 31, 2022 Vol.45 No.8
COVER PICTURE
Cryo-EM structure of human porphyrin transporter ABCB6 (main figure) shows that binding of hemin (inset, magenta) in concert with two glutathione molecules (cyan) primes ABCB6 for high ATP turnover (Kim et al., pp. 575-587).

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