Yonghwan KimMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 569-574 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0118
Abstract : As a scaffold, SLX4/FANCP interacts with multiple proteins involved in genome integrity. Although not having recognizable catalytic domains, SLX4 participates in diverse genome maintenance pathways by delivering nucleases where they are needed, and promoting their cooperative execution to prevent genomic instabilities. Physiological importance of SLX4 is emphasized by the identification of causative mutations of
Ryoung ShinMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 575-584 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0141
Abstract : Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation
Su Ui Lee, Kyung-Seop Ahn, Min Hee Sung, Ji-Won Park, Hyung Won Ryu, Hyun-Jun Lee, Sung-Tae Hong, and Sei-Ryang OhMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 585-591 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0076
Abstract : The β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is a G protein-coupled transmembrane receptor expressed in the human respiratory tract and widely recognized as a pharmacological target for treatments of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Although a number of ADRB2 agonists have been developed for use in asthma therapy, indacaterol is the only ultra-long-acting inhaled β2-agonist (LABA) approved by the FDA for relieving the symptoms in COPD patients.The precise molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effect of indacaterol, however, remains unclear. Here, we show that β-arrestin-2 mediates the internalization of ADRB2 following indacaterol treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that indacaterol significantly inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activity by reducing levels of both phosphorylated-IKK and -IκBα, thereby decreasing NF-κB nuclear translocation and the expression of MMP-9, an NF-κB target gene. Subsequently, we show that indacaterol significantly inhibits TNF-α/NF-κB-induced cell invasiveness and migration in a human cancer cell line. In conclusion, we propose that indacaterol may inhibit NF-κB activity in a β-arrestin2-dependent manner, preventing further lung damage and improving lung function in COPD patients.
Yongmei Tian, Mingjun Cai, Haijiao Xu, Bohua Ding, Xian Hao, Junguang Jiang, Yingchun Sun, and Hongda WangMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 592-597 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0115
Abstract : The cell membrane provides critical cellular functions that rely on its elaborate structure and organization. The structure of turtle membranes is an important part of an ongoing study of erythrocyte membranes. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy, we characterized the turtle erythrocyte membrane structure with molecular resolution in a quasi-native state. High-resolution images both leaflets of turtle erythrocyte membranes revealed a smooth outer membrane leaflet and a protein covered inner membrane leaflet. This asymmetry was verified by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which detects numerous exposed amino groups of membrane proteins in the inner membrane leaflet but much fewer in the outer leaflet. The asymmetric membrane structure of turtle erythrocytes is consistent with the semi-mosaic model of human, chicken and fish erythrocyte membrane structure, making the semi-mosaic model more widely applicable. From the perspective of biological evolution, this result may support the universality of the semi-mosaic model.
Hyun-Ju Kim, Hye-Jin Yoon, Shin-Yoon Kim, and Young-Ran YoonMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 598-604 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0153
Abstract : Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.
Jing Lai, Fang Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Yanru Wang, Jing Xu, Wei Song, Guichun Huang, Jun Gu, and Xiaoxiang GuanMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 605-612 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0154
Abstract : The
Zhili Cui, Jun Kang, Dan Hu, Jian Zhou, and Yusheng WangMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 613-619 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0155
Abstract : The optic nerve often suffers regenerative failure after injury, leading to serious visual impairment such as glaucoma. The main inhibitory factors, including Nogo-A, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, and myelin-associated glycoprotein, exert their inhibitory effects on axonal growth through the same receptor, the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Oncomodulin (OM), a calcium-binding protein with a molecular weight of an ∼12 kDa, which is secreted from activated macrophages, has been demonstrated to have high and specific affinity for retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and promote greater axonal regeneration than other known polypeptide growth factors. Protamine has been reported to effectively deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) into cells. Accordingly, a fusion protein of OM and truncated protamine (tp) may be used as a vehicle for the delivery of NgR siRNA into RGC for gene therapy. To test this hypothesis, we constructed OM and tp fusion protein (OM/tp) expression vectors. Using the indirect immunofluorescence labeling method, OM/tp fusion proteins were found to have a high affinity for RGC. The gel shift assay showed that the OM/tp fusion proteins retained the capacity to bind to DNA. Using OM/tp fusion proteins as a delivery tool, the siRNA of NgR was effectively transfected into cells and significantly down-regulated NgR expression levels. More importantly, OM/tp-NgR siRNA dramatically promoted axonal growth of RGC compared with the application of OM/tp recombinant protein or NgR siRNA alone
Young-Hoon Lee, Soo Young Kim, and Young-Seuk BaeMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 620-627 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0157
Abstract : We have previously shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-760, miR-186, miR-337-3p, and miR-216b stimulate premature senescence through protein kinase CK2 (CK2) down-regulation in human colon cancer cells. Here, we examined whether these four miRNAs are involved in the replicative senescence of human lung fibroblast IMR-90 cells. miR-760 and miR-186 were significantly upregulated in replicatively senescent IMR-90 cells, and their joint action with both miR-337-3p and miR-216b was necessary for efficient downregulation of the α subunit of CK2 (CK2α) in IMR-90 cells. A mutation in any of the four miRNA-binding sequences within the
So Jeong Park, Doo Ri Park, Deepak Bhattarai, Kyeong Lee, Jaesang Kim, Yun Soo Bae, and Soo Young LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(8): 628-635 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0190
Abstract : 2-(Trimethylammonium) ethyl (R)-3-methoxy-3-oxo-2-stearamidopropyl phosphate [(R)-TEMOSPho], a derivative of an organic chemical identified from a natural product library, promotes highly efficient megakaryopoiesis. Here, we show that (R)-TEMOSPho blocks osteoclast maturation from progenitor cells of hematopoietic origin, as well as blocking the resorptive function of mature osteoclasts. The inhibitory effect of (R)-TEMOSPho on osteoclasts was due to a disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, resulting from impaired downstream signaling of c-Fms, a receptor for macrophage-colony stimulating factor linked to c-Cbl, phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Vav3, and Rac1. In addition, (R)-TEMOSPho blocked inflammation-induced bone destruction by reducing the numbers of osteoclasts produced in mice. Thus, (R)-TEMOSPho may represent a promising new class of antiresorptive drugs for the treatment of bone loss associated with increased osteoclast maturation and activity.