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  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2014

    5 384 1492
    Abstract

    Abstract : Lymphatic vessels provide essential roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis and lipid absorption. Dysfunctions of the lymphatic vessels lead to debilitating pathological conditions, collectively known as lymphedema. In addition, lymphatic vessels are a critical moderator for the onset and progression of diverse human diseases including metastatic cancer and obesity. Despite their clinical importance, there is no currently effective pharmacological therapy to regulate functions of lymphatic vessels. Recent efforts to manipulate the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) pathway, which is arguably the most important signaling pathway regulating lymphatic endothelial cells, to alleviate lymphedema yielded largely mixed results, necessitating identification of new targetable signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention for lymphedema. Zebrafish, a relatively new model system to investigate lymphatic biology, appears to be an ideal model to identify novel therapeutic targets for lymphatic biology. In this review, we will provide an overview of our current understanding of the lymphatic vessels in vertebrates, and discuss zebrafish as a promising in vivo model to study lymphatic vessels.

  • MinireviewJuly 31, 2014

    31 281 1384

    Neuronal Activity-Dependent Regulation of MicroRNAs

    Su-Eon Sim, Joseph Bakes, and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 511-517 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0132
    Abstract

    Abstract : MicroRNAs are non-coding short (~23 nucleotides) RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional regulation through sequence-specific gene silencing. The role of miRNAs in neuronal development, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity has been highlighted. However, the role of neuronal activity on miRNA regulation has been less focused. Neuronal activity-dependent regulation of miRNA may fine-tune gene expression in response to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Here, we provide an overview of miRNA regulation by neuronal activity including high-throughput screening studies. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanisms of activity-dependent induction and turnover of miRNAs.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    3 225 473
    Abstract

    Abstract : Gammaherpesvirus (γHV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated in diverse neurological diseases, and murine γHV-68 (MHV-68) is known to persist in the brain after cerebral infection. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistency of virus in the brain are poorly understood. Here, we characterized a unique pattern of MHV-68 persistent infection in neuroblastoma cells. On infection with MHV-68, both murine and human neuroblastoma cells expressed viral lytic proteins and produced virions. However, the infected cells survived productive infection and could be cultured for multiple passages without affecting their cellular growth. Latent infection as well as productive replication was established in these prolonged cultures, and lytic replication was further increased by treatment with lytic inducers. Our results provide a novel system to study persistent infection of γHVs in vitro following de novo infection and suggest application of MHV-68 as a potential gene transfer vector to the brain.1

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    4 354 591
    Abstract

    Abstract : Human PARP family consists of 17 members of which PARP-1 is a prominent member and plays a key role in DNA repair pathways. It has an N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) encompassing the nuclear localisation signal (NLS), central automodification domain and C-terminal catalytic domain. PARP-1 accounts for majority of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymer synthesis that upon binding to numerous proteins including PARP itself modulates their activity. Reduced PARP-1 activity in ageing human samples and its deficiency leading to telomere shortening has been reported. Hence for cell survival, maintenance of genomic integrity and longevity presence of intact PARP-1 in the nucleus is paramount. Although localisation of full-length and truncated PARP-1 in PARP-1 proficient cells is well documented, subcellular distribution of PARP-1 fragments in the absence of endogenous PARP-1 is not known. Here we report the differential localisation of PARP-1 N-terminal fragment encompassing NLS in PARP-1+/+ and PARP-1?/? mouse embryo fibroblasts by live imaging of cells transiently expressing EGFP tagged fragment. In PARP-1+/+ cells the fragment localises to the nuclei presenting a granular pattern. Furthermore, it is densely packaged in the midsections of the nucleus. In contrast, the fragment localises exclusively to the cytoplasm in PARP-1?/? cells. Flourescence intensity analysis further confirmed this observation indicating that the N-terminal fragment requires endogenous PARP-1 for its nuclear transport. Our study illustrates the trafficking role of PARP-1 independently of its enzymatic activity and highlights the possibility that full-length PARP-1 may play a key role in the nuclear transport of its siblings and other molecules.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    61 563 3080

    OsWRKY42 Represses OsMT1d and Induces Reactive Oxygen Species and Leaf Senescence in Rice

    Muho Han, Chi-Yeol Kim, Junok Lee, Sang-Kyu Lee, and Jong-Seong Jeon

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 532-539 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0128
    Abstract

    Abstract : We isolated a rice (Oryza sativa L.) WRKY gene which is highly upregulated in senescent leaves, denoted OsWRKY42. Analysis of OsWRKY42-GFP expression and its effects on transcriptional activation in maize protoplasts suggested that the OsWRKY42 protein functions as a nuclear transcriptional repressor. OsWRKY42-overexpressing (OsWR KY42OX) transgenic rice plants exhibited an early leaf senescence phenotype with accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide and a reduced chlorophyll content. Expression analysis of ROS producing and scavenging genes revealed that the metallothionein genes clustered on chromosome 12, especially OsMT1d, were strongly repressed in OsWRKY42OX plants. An OsMT1d promoter:LUC construct was found to be repressed by OsWRKY42 overexpression in rice protoplasts. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY42 binds to the W-box of the OsMT1d promoter. Our results thus suggest that OsWRKY42 represses OsMT1d-mediated ROS scavenging and thereby promotes leaf senescence in rice.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    52 386 1646

    A Long Non-Coding RNA snaR Contributes to 5-Fluorouracil Resistance in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    Heejin Lee, Chongtae Kim, Ja-Lok Ku, Wook Kim, Sungjoo Kim Yoon, Hyo-Jeong Kuh, Jeong-Hwa Lee, Suk Woo Nam, and Eun Kyung Lee

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 540-546 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0151
    Abstract

    Abstract : Several types of genetic and epigenetic regulation have been implicated in the development of drug resistance, one significant challenge for cancer therapy. Although changes in the expression of non-coding RNA are also responsible for drug resistance, the specific identities and roles of them remain to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a type of ncRNA (> 200 nt) that influence the regulation of gene expression in various ways. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs in 5-fluorouracil-resistant colon cancer cells. Using two pairs of 5-FU-resistant cells derived from the human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C4 and SNU-C5, we analyzed the expression of 90 lncRNAs by qPCR-based profiling and found that 19 and 23 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in SNU-C4R and SNU-C5R cells, respectively. We confirmed that snaR and BACE1AS were downregulated in resistant cells. To further investigate the effects of snaR on cell growth, cell viability and cell cycle were analyzed after transfection of siRNAs targeting snaR. Down-regulation of snaR decreased cell death after 5-FU treatment, which indicates that snaR loss decreases in vitro sensitivity to 5-FU. Our results provide an important insight into the involvement of lncRNAs in 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    29 431 1392
    Abstract

    Abstract : Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common brain malignancies and has a very poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in GBM and the rare CSC subpopulation that is resistant to chemotherapy may be responsible for the treatment failure and unfavorable prognosis of GBM. A garlic-derived compound, Z-ajoene, has shown a range of biological activities, including anti-proliferative effects on several cancers. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Z-ajoene specifically inhibits the growth of the GBM CSC population. CSC sphere-forming inhibition was achieved at a concentration that did not exhibit a cytotoxic effect in regular cell culture conditions. The specificity of this inhibitory effect on the CSC population was confirmed by detecting CSC cell surface marker CD133 expression and biochemical marker ALDH activity. In addition, stem cell-related mRNA profiling and real-time PCR revealed the differential expression of CSC-specific genes, including Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog, upon treatment with Z-ajoene. A proteomic approach, i.e., reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) and Western blot analysis, showed decreased SMAD4, p-AKT, 14.3.3 and FOXO3A expression. The protein interaction map (http://string-db.org/) of the identified molecules suggested that the AKT, ERK/p38 and TGFβ signaling pathways are key mediators of Z?ajoene’s action, which affects the transcriptional network that includes FOXO3A. These biological and bioinformatic analyses collectively demonstrate that Z-ajoene is a potential candidate for the treatment of GBM by specifically targeting GBM CSCs. We also show how this systemic approach strengthens the identification of new therapeutic agents that target CSCs.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    4 206 627
    Abstract

    Abstract : Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor that exerts diverse biological effects through its cognate receptors (LPA1-LPA6). LPA1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, plays a pivotal role in brain development. However, the role of LPA1 in neuronal migration has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we delivered LPA1 to mouse cerebral cortex using in utero electroporation. We demonstrated that neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex was not affected by the overexpression of LPA1. Moreover, these results can be applied to the identification of the localization of LPA1. The subcellular localization of LPA1 was endogenously present in the perinuclear area, and overexpressed LPA1 was located in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, LPA1 in developing mouse cerebral cortex was mainly expressed in the ventricular zone and the cortical plate. In summary, the overexpression of LPA1 did not affect neuronal migration, and the protein expression of LPA1 was mainly located in the ventricular zone and cortical plate within the developing mouse cerebral cortex. These studies have provided information on the role of LPA1 in brain development and on the technical advantages of in utero electroporation.

  • ArticleJuly 31, 2014

    18 389 824

    Establishment of Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath/Epithelial Rests of Malassez Cell Line from Human Periodontium

    Hyun Nam, Ji-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Byoung-Moo Seo, Joo-Cheol Park, Jung-Wook Kim, and Gene Lee

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(7): 562-567 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0161
    Abstract

    Abstract : Human Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cells are epithelial remnants of teeth residing in the periodontium. Although the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells have yet to be elucidated, they are a unique epithelial cell population in adult teeth and are reported to have stem cell characteristics. Therefore, HERS/ERM cells might play a role as an epithelial component for the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissues; however, they are very rare population in periodontium and the primary isolation of them is considered to be difficult. To overcome these problems, we immortalized primary HERS/ERM cells isolated from human periodontium using SV40 large T antigen (SV40 LT) and performed a characterization of the immortalized cell line. Primary HERS/ERM cells could not be maintained for more than 6 passages; however, immortalized HERS/ERM cells were maintained for more than 20 passages. There were no differences in the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of HERS/ERM cells and immortalized HERS/ERM cells. The expression of epithelial stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers was maintained in immortalized HERS/ERM cells. Moreover, immortalized HERS/ERM cells could acquire mesenchymal phenotypes through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via TGF-β1. In conclusion, we established an immortalized human HERS/ERM cell line with SV40 LT and expect this cell line to contribute to the understanding of the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells and the tissue engineering of teeth.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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