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  • MinireviewJune 30, 2014

    95 702 1852

    Shear Stress and Atherosclerosis

    Kyung-Sun Heo, Keigi Fujiwara, and Jun-ichi Abe

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 435-440

    Abstract : Hemodynamic shear stress, the frictional force acting on vascular endothelial cells, is crucial for endothelial homeostasis under normal physiological conditions. When discussing blood flow effects on various forms of endothelial (dys)function, one considers two flow patterns: steady laminar flow and disturbed flow because endothelial cells respond differently to these flow types both in vivo and in vitro. Laminar flow which exerts steady laminar shear stress is atheroprotective while disturbed flow creates an atheroprone environment. Emerging evidence has provided new insights into the cellular mechanisms of flowdependent regulation of vascular function that leads to cardiovascular events such as atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, and myocardial infarction. In order to study effects of shear stress and different types of flow, various models have been used. In this review, we will summarize our current views on how disturbed flow-mediated signaling pathways are involved in the development of atherosclerosis.

  • MinireviewJune 30, 2014

    90 581 3055

    Abstract : Inflammasomes are specialized signaling platforms critical for the regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses. Various NLR family members (i.e., NLRP1, NLRP3, and IPAF) as well as the PYHIN family member AIM2 can form inflammasome complexes. These multiprotein complexes activate inflammatory caspases (i.e., caspase-1) which in turn catalyze the maturation of select pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome typically requires two initiating signals. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) agonists activate the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes through an NF-kBdependent priming signal. Following exposure to extracellular ATP, stimulation of the P2X purinoreceptor-7 (P2X7R), which results in K+ efflux, is required as a second signal for NLRP3 inflammasome formation. Alternative models for NLRP3 activation involve lysosomal destabilization and phagocytic NADPH oxidase and /or mitochondria-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this review we examine regulatory mechanisms that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Furthermore, we discuss the potential roles of NLRP3 in metabolic and cognitive diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, and major depressive disorder. Novel therapeutics involving inflammasome activation may result in possible clinical applications in the near future.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    29 283 1004

    Upregulation of miR-23b Enhances the Autologous Therapeutic Potential for Degenerative Arthritis by Targeting PRKACB in Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Patients

    Onju Ham, Chang Youn Lee, Byeong-Wook Song, Se-Yeon Lee, Ran Kim, Jun-Hee Park, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Chae Yoon Lee, Byeong-Wook Song, Yong-An Chung, Lee-So Maeng, Min Young Lee, Jongmin Kim, Byeong-Wook Song, Jihwan Hwang, Dong Kyun Woo, and Woochul Chang*

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 449-456

    Abstract : The use of synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SFMSCs) obtained from patients with degenerative arthropathy may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For treatment of OA and RA patients, autologous transplantation of differentiated MSCs has several beneficial effects for cartilage regeneration including immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we induced chondrogenic differentiation of SFMSCs by inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA) with a small molecule and microRNA (miRNA). Chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed by PCR and immunocytochemistry using probes specific for aggrecan, the major cartilaginous proteoglycan gene. Absorbance of alcian blue stain to detect chondrogenic differentiation was increased in H-89 and/or miRNA-23btransfected cells. Furthermore, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 was decreased in treated1 cells. Therefore, differentiation of SFMSCs into chondrocytes through inhibition of PKA signaling may be a therapeutic option for OA or RA patients.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    6 369 756

    Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics and N-terminal Analysis of Human Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells

    Hophil Min, Dohyun Han, Yikwon Kim, Jee Yeon Cho, Jonghwa Jin, and Youngsoo Kim

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 457-466

    Abstract : Proteomic analysis is helpful in identifying cancerassociated proteins that are differentially expressed and fragmented that can be annotated as dysregulated networks and pathways during metastasis. To examine metastatic process in lung cancer, we performed a proteomics study by label-free quantitative analysis and N-terminal analysis in 2 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines with disparate metastatic potentials?NCI-H1703 (primary cell, stage I) and NCI-H1755 (metastatic cell, stage IV). We identified 2130 proteins, 1355 of which were common to both cell lines. In the label-free quantitative analysis, we used the NSAF normalization method, resulting in 242 differential expressed proteins. For the N-terminal proteome analysis, 325 N-terminal peptides, including 45 novel fragments, were identified in the 2 cell lines. Based on two proteomic analysis, 11 quantitatively expressed proteins and 8 N-terminal peptides were enriched for the focal adhesion pathway. Most proteins from the quantitative analysis were upregulated in metastatic cancer cells, whereas novel fragment of CRKL was detected only in primary cancer cells. This study increases our understanding of the NSCLC metastasis proteome.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    23 387 683

    Effect of Body Mass Index on Global DNA Methylation in Healthy Korean Women

    Yeon Kyung Na, Hae Sook Hong, Duk Hee Lee, Won Kee Lee, and Dong Sun Kim

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 467-472

    Abstract : Obesity is known to be strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and develops owing to interactions between genes and the environment. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals, and analysis of this process therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Repetitive element DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with prominent obesity-related chronic diseases, but little is known about its relationship with weight status. In this study, we quantified the methylation of Alu elements in the peripheral blood DNA of 244 healthy women with a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) using pyrosequencing technology. Among the study participants, certain clinical laboratory parameters, including hemoglobin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic- pyruvic transaminase, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were found to be strongly associated with BMI. Moreover, a U-shaped association between BMI and Alu methylation was observed, with the lowest methylation levels occurring at BMIs of between 23 and 30 kg/m2. However, there was no significant association between Alu methylation and age, smoking status, or alcohol consumption. Overall, we identified a differential influence of BMI on global DNA methylation in healthy Korean women, indicating that BMI-related changes in Alu methylation might play a complex role in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    18 315 1027

    A Novel Feeder-Free Culture System for Expansion of Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    Na Young Choi, Yo Seph Park, Jae-Sung Ryu, Hye Jeong Lee, Marcos J. Ara?zo-Bravo, Kisung Ko, Dong Wook Han, Hans R. Sch?ler, and Kinarm Ko

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 473-479

    Abstract : Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, also called germline stem cells) are self-renewing unipotent stem cells that produce differentiating germ cells in the testis. SSCs can be isolated from the testis and cultured in vitro for longterm periods in the presence of feeder cells (often mouse embryonic fibroblasts). However, the maintenance of SSC feeder culture systems is tedious because preparation of feeder cells is needed at each subculture. In this study, we developed a Matrigel-based feeder-free culture system for long-term propagation of SSCs. Although several in vitro SSC culture systems without feeder cells have been previously described, our Matrigel-based feeder-free culture system is time- and cost- effective, and preserves self-renewability of SSCs. In addition, the growth rate of SSCs cultured using our newly developed system is equivalent to that in feeder cultures. We confirmed that the feeder-free cultured SSCs expressed germ cell markers both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the functionality of feeder-free cultured SSCs was confirmed by their transplantation into germ cell-depleted mice. These results suggest that our newly developed feederfree culture system provides a simple approach to maintaining SSCs in vitro and studying the basic biology of SSCs, including determination of their fate.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    3 211 586

    Activation of Multiple Transcriptional Regulators by Growth Restriction in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Doo Hwan Yeom, Su-Jin Im, Soo-Kyoung Kim, and Joon-Hee Lee

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 480-486

    Abstract : Growth restriction by antibiotics is a common feature that pathogenic bacteria must overcome for survival. The struggle of bacteria to escape from growth restriction eventually results in development of antibiotic-resistance through the expression of a set of genes. Here we found that some physiologically important transcriptional regulators of Pseudomonas aeruginosa including QscR, a quorum sensing (QS) receptor, SoxR, a superoxide sensorregulator, and AntR, a regulator of anthranilate-related secondary metabolism, are activated by various growthrestricted conditions. We generated the growth-restricted conditions by various methods, such as overexpression of PA2537 and treatment with antibiotics or disinfectants. The overexpression of PA2537, encoding an acyltransferase homologue, tightly restricted the growth of P. aeruginosa and significantly activated QscR during the growth restriction. Similarly, treatments with gentamycin, tetracycline, and ethanol also activated QscR near their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Some non-QS regulators, such as AntR and SoxR, were also activated near the MICs in the same conditions. However, LasR and PqsR, other QS receptors of P. aeruginosa, were not activated, suggesting that only a specific set of transcriptional regulators is activated by growth restriction. Since paraquat, a superoxide generator, significantly activated QscR and AntR, we suggest that the oxidative stress generated by growth restriction may be partly involved in this phenomenon.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    12 228 778

    Hypoxia-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Function Is Blunted in Angiotensinogen Knockout Mice

    Jin-Hwa Choi, Minh-Phuong Nguyen, Dongjin Lee, Goo-Taeg Oh, and You-Mie Lee

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 487-496

    Abstract : Angiotensinogen (AGT), the precursor of angiotensin I, is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis and associated with the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to determine the role played by AGT in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in tumor progression and metastasis. It was found that the number of EPC colonies formed by AGT heterozygous knockout (AGT+/-) cells was less than that formed by wild-type (WT) cells, and that the migration and tube formation abilities of AGT+/- EPCs were significantly lower than those of WT EPCs. In addition, the gene expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Flk1, angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2, Tie-2, stromal derived factor (SDF)-1, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), and of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were suppressed in AGT+/- EPCs. Furthermore, the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and -2α were downregulated in AGT+/- early EPCs under hypoxic conditions, suggesting a blunting of response to hypoxia. Moreover, the activation of Akt/eNOS signaling pathways induced by VEGF, epithelial growth factor (EGF), or SDF-1α were suppressed in AGT+/- EPCs. In AGT+/- mice, the incorporation of EPCs into the tumor vasculature was significantly reduced, and lung tumor growth and melanoma metastasis were attenuated. In conclusion, AGT is required for hypoxia-induced vasculogenesis.

  • ArticleJune 30, 2014

    29 379 1141

    Monitoring the Differentiation and Migration Patterns of Neural Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using a Microfluidic Culture System

    Nayeon Lee, Jae Woo Park, Hyung Joon Kim, Ju Hun Yeon, Jihye Kwon, Jung Jae Ko, Seung-Hun Oh, Hyun Sook Kim, Aeri Kim, Baek Soo Han, Sang Chul Lee, Noo Li Jeon, and Jihwan Song

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(6): 497-502

    Abstract : Microfluidics can provide unique experimental tools to visualize the development of neural structures within a microscale device, which is followed by guidance of neurite growth in the axonal isolation compartment. We utilized microfluidics technology to monitor the differentiation and migration of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We co-cultured hESCs with PA6 stromal cells, and isolated neural rosette-like structures, which subsequently formed neurospheres in suspension culture. Tuj1-positive neural cells, but not nestin-positive neural precursor cells (NPCs), were able to enter the microfluidics grooves (microchannels), suggesting that neural cell-migratory capacity was dependent upon neuronal differentiation stage. We also showed that bundles of axons formed and extended into the microchannels. Taken together, these results demonstrated that microfluidics technology can provide useful tools to study neurite outgrowth and axon guidance of neural cells, which are derived from human embryonic stem cells.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).


Molecules and Cells

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