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  • MinireviewMay 31, 2014

    21 369 1715
    Abstract

    Abstract : Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, is a disease whose mechanisms are now beginning to be uncovered by high-throughput studies of somatic mutations, mRNA expression patterns, and epigenetic profiles of patient tumors. One emerging theme from studies that sequenced the tumor genomes of large cohorts of medulloblastoma patients is frequent mutation of RNA binding proteins. Proteins which bind multiple RNA targets can act as master regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level to co-ordinate cellular processes and alter the phenotype of the cell. Identification of the target genes of RNA binding proteins may highlight essential pathways of medulloblastomagenesis that cannot be detected by study of transcriptomics alone. Furthermore, a subset of RNA binding proteins are attractive drug targets. For example, compounds that are under development as anti-viral targets due to their ability to inhibit RNA helicases could also be tested in novel approaches to medulloblastoma therapy by targeting key RNA binding proteins. In this review, we discuss a number of RNA binding proteins, including Musashi1 (MSI1), DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3 X-linked (DDX3X), DDX31, and cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which play potentially critical roles in the growth and/or maintenance of medulloblastoma.

  • MinireviewMay 31, 2014

    234 1468 3710
    Abstract

    Abstract : Recent findings, notably on adipokines and adipose tissue inflammation, have revised the concept of adipose tissues being a mere storage depot for body energy. Instead, adipose tissues are emerging as endocrine and immunologically active organs with multiple effects on the regulation of systemic energy homeostasis. Notably, compared with other metabolic organs such as liver and muscle, various inflammatory responses are dynamically regulated in adipose tissues and most of the immune cells in adipose tissues are involved in obesity-mediated metabolic complications, including insulin resistance. Here, we summarize recent findings on the key roles of innate (neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils) and adaptive (regulatory T cells, type 1 helper T cells, CD8 T cells, B cells) immune cells in adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. In particular, the roles of natural killer T cells, one type of innate lymphocyte, in adipose tissue inflammation will be discussed. Finally, a new role of adipocytes as antigen presenting cells to modulate T cell activity and subsequent adipose tissue inflammation will be proposed.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    42 405 1689

    Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Early Diverged Leptosporangiate Ferns

    Hyoung Tae Kim, Myong Gi Chung, and Ki-Joong Kim

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(5): 372-382 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.2296
    Abstract

    Abstract : In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnV-GCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of co-dons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    42 537 850
    Abstract

    Abstract : Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a high frequency of metastasis and only few therapies substantially prolong survival. Honokiol, isolated from Magnolia spp. bark, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types. However, whether honokiol could suppress RCC metastasis has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that honokiol suppressed renal cancer cells’ metastasis via dual-blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. In addition, honokiol inhibited tumor growth in vivo. It was found that honokiol could up-regulate miR-141, which targeted ZEB2 and modulated ZEB2 expression. Honokiol reversed EMT and suppressed CSC properties partly through the miR-141/ZEB2 axis. Our study suggested that honokiol may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for RCC treatment.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    9 348 662

    Siah Ubiquitin Ligases Modulate Nodal Signaling during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    Nami Kang, Minho Won, Myungchull Rhee, and Hyunju Ro

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(5): 389-398 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0032
    Abstract

    Abstract : Siah2 is a zebrafish homologue of mammalian Siah family. Siah acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds proteins destined for degradation. Extensive homology between siah and Drosophila Siah homologue (sina) suggests their important physiological roles during embryonic development. However, detailed functional studies of Siah in vertebrate development have not been carried out. Here we report that Siah2 specifically augments nodal related gene expression in marginal blastomeres at late blastula through early gastrula stages of zebrafish embryos. Siah2 dependent Nodal signaling augmentation is confirmed by cell-based reporter gene assays using 293T cells and 3TP-luciferase reporter plasmid. We also established a molecular hierarchy of Siah as a upstream regulator of FoxH1/Fast1 transcriptional factor in Nodal signaling. Elevated expression of nodal related genes by overexpression of Siah2 was enough to override the inhibitory effects of atv and lft2 on the Nodal signaling. In particular, E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of Siah2 is critical to limit the duration and/or magnitude of Nodal signaling. Additionally, since the embryos injected with Siah morpholinos mimicked the atv overexpression phenotype at least in part, our data support a model in which Siah is involved in mesendoderm patterning via modulating Nodal signaling.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    40 426 1175
    Abstract

    Abstract : Autophagy targets cytoplasmic cargo to a lytic compartment for degradation. Autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, including the transmembrane protein Atg9, are involved in different steps of autophagy in yeast and mammalian cells. Functional classification of core Atg proteins in plants has not been clearly confirmed, partly because of the limited availability of reliable assays for monitoring autophagic flux. By using proUBQ10-GFP-ATG8a as an autophagic marker, we showed that autophagic flux is reduced but not completely compromised in Arabidopsis thaliana atg9 mutants. In contrast, we confirmed full inhibition of auto-phagic flux in atg7 and that the difference in autophagy was consistent with the differences in mutant phenotypes such as hypersensitivity to nutrient stress and selective autophagy. Autophagic flux is also reduced by an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol kinase. Our data indicated that atg9 is phenotypically distinct from atg7 and atg2 in Arabidopsis, and we proposed that ATG9 and phosphatidylinositol kinase activity contribute to efficient autophagy in Arabidopsis.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    7 372 951

    Zebrafish Crip2 Plays a Critical Role in Atrioventricular Valve Development by Downregulating the Expression of ECM Genes in the Endocardial Cushion

    Jun-Dae Kim, Hey-Jin Kim, Soonil Koun, Hyung-Jin Ham, Myoung-Jin Kim, Myungchull Rhee, and Tae-Lin Huh

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(5): 406-411 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0072
    Abstract

    Abstract : The initial step of atrioventricular (AV) valve development involves the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the endocardial cushion and the endocardialmesenchymal transition. While the appropriately regulated expression of the major ECM components, Versican and Hyaluronan, that form the endocardial cushion is important for heart valve development, the underlying mechanism that regulates ECM gene expression remains unclear. We found that zebrafish crip2 expression is restricted to a subset of cells in the AV canal (AVC) endocardium at 55 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Knockdown of crip2 induced a heart-looping defect in zebrafish embryos, although the development of cardiac chambers appeared to be normal. In the AVC of Crip2-deficient embryos, the expression of both versican a and hyaluronan synthase 2 (has2) was highly upregulated, but the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (bmp4) and T-box 2b (tbx2b) in the myocardium and of notch1b in the endocardium in the AVC did not change. Taken together, these results indicate that crip2 plays an important role in AV valve development by downregulating the expression of ECM components in the endocardial cushion.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    6 260 506
    Abstract

    Abstract : It has been reported that exogenously introduced micro-RNA (exo-miRNA) competes with endogenously expressed miRNAs (endo-miRNAs) in human cells, resulting in a detectable upregulation of mRNAs with endo-miRNA target sites (TSs). However, the detailed mechanisms of the competition between exo- and endo-miRNAs remain uninvestigated. In this study, using 74 microarrays that monitored the whole-transcriptome response after introducing miRNAs or siRNAs into HeLa cells, we systematically examined the derepression of mRNAs with exo- and/or endo-miRNA TSs.We quantitatively assessed the effect of the number of endo-miRNA TSs on the degree of mRNA derepression. As a result, we observed that the number of endo-miRNA TSs was significantly associated with the degree of derepression, supporting that the derepression resulted from the competition between exo- and endo-miRNAs. However, when we examined whether the site proficiency of exo-miRNA TSs could also influence mRNA derepression, to our surprise, we discovered a strong positive correlation. Our analysis indicates that site proficiencies of both exo- and endo-miRNA TSs are important determinants for the degree of mRNA derepression, implying that the derepression of mRNAs in response to exo-miRNA is more complex than that currently perceived.Our observations may lead to a more complete understanding of the detailed mechanisms of the competition between exo- and endo-miRNAs and to a more accurate prediction of miRNA targets. Our analysis also suggests an interesting hypothesis that long 3′-UTRs may function as molecular buffer against gene expression regulation by individual miRNAs.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    8 388 637

    Increase in Hypotonic Stress-Induced Endocytic Activity in Macrophages via ClC-3

    Yutao Yan, Yu Ding, Bingxia Ming, Wenjiao Du, Xiaoling Kong, Li Tian, Fang Zheng, Min Fang, Zheng Tan, and Feili Gong

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(5): 418-425 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0031
    Abstract

    Abstract : Extracellular hypotonic stress can affect cellular function. Whether and how hypotonicity affects immune cell function remains to be elucidated. Macrophages are immune cells that play key roles in adaptive and innate in immune reactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of hypotonic stress in the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Hypotonic stress increased endocytic activity in BMDMs, but there was no significant change in the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC class II molecules, nor in the secretion of TNF-α or IL-10 by BMDMs. Furthermore, the enhanced endocytic activity of BMDMs triggered by hypotonic stress was significantly inhibited by chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) siRNA. Our findings suggest that hypotonic stress can induce endocytosis in BMDMs and that ClC-3 plays a central role in the endocytic process.

  • ArticleMay 31, 2014

    27 292 878

    Vimentin Is Involved in Peptidylarginine Deiminase 2-Induced Apoptosis of Activated Jurkat Cells

    Pei-Chen Hsu, Ya-Fan Liao, Chin-Li Lin, Wen-Hao Lin, Guang-Yaw Liu, and Hui-Chih Hung

    Mol. Cells 2014; 37(5): 426-434 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.2359
    Abstract

    Abstract : Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PADI2) deiminates (or citrullinates) arginine residues in protein to citrulline residues in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and is found in lymphocytes and macrophages. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and a well-known substrate of PADI2. Citrullinated vimentin is found in ionomycin-induced macrophage apoptosis. Citrullinated vimentin is the target of anti-Sa antibodies, which are specific to rheumatoid arthritis, and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. To investigate the role of PADI2 in apoptosis, we generated a Jurkat cell line that overexpressed the PADI2 transgene from a tetracycline-inducible promoter, and used a combination of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ionomycin to activate Jurkat cells. We found that PADI2 overexpression reduced the cell viability of activated Jurkat cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The PADI2-overexpressed and -activated Jurkat cells presented typical manifestations of apoptosis, and exhibited greater levels of citrullinated proteins, including citrullinated vimentin. Vimentin overexpression rescued a portion of the cells from apoptosis. In conclusion, PADI2 overexpression induces apoptosis in activated Jurkat cells. Vimentin is involved in PADI2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PADI2-overexpressed Jurkat cells secreted greater levels of vimentin after activation, and expressed more vimentin on their cell surfaces when undergoing apoptosis. Through artificially highlighting PADI2 and vimentin, we demonstrated that PADI2 and vimentin participate in the apoptotic mechanisms of activated T lymphocytes. The secretion and surface expression of vimentin are possible ways of autoantigen presentation to the immune system.

Mol. Cells
Sep 30, 2022 Vol.45 No.9
COVER PICTURE
The Target of Rapamycin Complex (TORC) is a central regulatory hub in eukaryotes, which is well conserved in diverse plant species, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inhibition of TORC genes (SlTOR, SlLST8, and SlRAPTOR) by VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) results in early fruit ripening in tomato. The red/ orange tomatoes are early-ripened TORC-silenced fruits, while the green tomato is a control fruit. Top, left, control fruit (TRV2-myc); top, right, TRV2-SlLST8; bottom, left, TRV2-SlTOR; bottom, right, TRV2-SlRAPTOR(Choi et al., pp. 660-672).

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