Dong-Hwan Kim, and Sibum SungMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 841-850 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0249
Abstract : Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are conserved chromatin regulators involved in the control of key developmental programs in eukaryotes. They collectively provide the transcriptional memory unique to each cell identity by maintaining transcriptional states of developmental genes. PcG proteins form multi-protein complexes, known as Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 contribute to the stable gene silencing in part through catalyzing covalent histone modifications. Components of PRC1 and PRC2 are well conserved from plants to animals. PcG-mediated gene silencing has been extensively investigated in efforts to understand molecular mechanisms underlying developmental programs in eukaryotes. Here, we describe our current knowledge on PcG-mediated gene repression which dictates developmental programs by dynamic layers of regulatory activities, with an emphasis given to the model plant
Matteo Cattaneo, Yuichi Morozumi, Daniel Perazza, Fay?al Boussouar, Mahya Jamshidikia, Sophie Rousseaux, Andr? Verdel, and Saadi KhochbinMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 851-856 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0258
Abstract : ATAD2, a remarkably conserved, yet poorly characterized factor is found upregulated and associated with poor prognosis in a variety of independent cancers in human. Studies conducted on the yeast
Peng Wang, Bo Yin, Liping Shan, Hui Zhang, Jun Cui, Mo Zhang, and Yongsheng SongMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 857-864 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0081
Abstract : Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is a recently discovered oncogene that has been reported to be highly expressed in various types of malignant tumors, including renal cell carcinoma. However, the precise role of AEG-1 in renal cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis has not been clarified. In this study, we transfected the renal cancer cell line Caki-1 with a plasmid expressing AEG-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and obtained cell colonies with stable knockdown of AEG-1. We found that AEG-1 down-regulation inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and arrested cell cycle progression at the sub-G1 and G0/G1 phase. Western blot analysis indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 and cyclin E were significantly reduced following AEG-1 down-regulation. In addition, AEG-1 knockdown led to the appearance of apoptotic bodies in renal cancer cells, and the ratio of apoptotic cells significantly increased. Expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 was dramatically reduced, whereas the pro-apoptotic factors Bax, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly activated. Finally, AEG-1 knockdown in Caki-1 cells remarkably suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis in response to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, suggesting that AEG-1 inhibition sensitizes Caki-1 cells to 5-FU. Taken together, our data suggest that AEG-1 plays an important role in renal cancer formation and development and may be a potential target for future gene therapy for renal cell carcinoma.
Jiabin Liu, Haiying Zhang, Yun Zhang, Nan Li, Yuku Wen, Fanglei Cao, Hao Ai, and Xiaoou XueMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 865-872 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0145
Abstract : Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a long-term adverse effect of chemotherapy treatment. However, current available treatment regimens are not optimal. Emerging evidence suggests that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could restore the structure and function of injured tissues, but the homing and restorative effects of BMSCs on chemotherapy injured ovaries are still not clear. In this study, we found that granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis induced by cisplatin was reduced when BMSCs were migrated to granulosa cells (GCs)
Miao Yang, Ran Liu, Xiajun Li, Juan Liao, Yuepu Pu, Enchun Pan, Lihong Yin, and Yi WangMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 873-880 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0147
Abstract : In our previous study, miRNA-183, a miRNA in the miR-96-182-183 cluster, was significantly over-expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the present study, we explored the oncogenic roles of miR-183 in ESCC by gain and loss of function analysis in an esophageal cancer cell line (EC9706). Genome-wide mRNA microarray was applied to determine the genes that were regulated directly or indirectly by miR-183. 3′UTR luciferase reporter assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot were conducted to verify the target gene of miR-183. Cell culture results showed that miR-183 inhibited apoptosis (
Heekyung Jung, Joo-Hyun Shin, Young-Seok Park, and Mi-Sook ChangMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 881-887 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0182
Abstract : Cell proliferation is tightly controlled by the cell-cycle regulatory proteins, primarily by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in the G1 phase. The ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS) scaffold protein, also known as kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins 220), has been previously identified as a prominent downstream target of neurotrophin and ephrin receptors. Many studies have reported that ARMS/Kidins220 acts as a major signaling platform in organizing the signaling complex to regulate various cellular responses in the nervous and vascular systems. However, the role of ARMS/Kidins220 in cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression has never been investigated. Here we report that knockdown of ARMS/Kidins220 inhibits mouse neuroblastoma cell proliferation by inducing slowdown of cell cycle in the G1 phase. This effect is mediated by the upregulation of a CDK inhibitor p21, which causes the decrease in cyclin D1 and CDK4 protein levels and subsequent reduction of pRb hyperphosphorylation. Our results suggest a new role of ARMS/Kidins220 as a signaling platform to regulate tumor cell proliferation in response to the extracellular stimuli.
Yikwon Kim, Dohyun Han, Hophil Min, Jonghwa Jin, Eugene C. Yi, and Youngsoo KimMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 888-898 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0207
Abstract : Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal cancers and is associated with limited diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Currently, gemcitabine is the only effective drug and represents the preferred first-line treatment for chemotherapy. However, a high level of intrinsic or acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer to gemcitabine can contribute to the failure of gemcitabine treatment. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, we performed label-free quantification of protein expression in intrinsic gemcitabine-resistant and - sensitive human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines using our improved proteomic strategy, combined with filter-aided sample preparation, single-shot liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, enhanced spectral counting, and a statistical method based on a power law global error model. We identified 1931 proteins and quantified 787 differentially expressed proteins in the BxPC3, PANC-1, and HPDE cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis identified 15 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and 13 EMT-related proteins that were closely associated with drug resistance were differentially expressed. Interestingly, 8 of these proteins were involved in glutathione and cysteine/methionine metabolism. These results suggest that proteins related to the EMT and glutathione metabolism play important roles in the development of intrinsic gemcitabine resistance by pancreatic cancer cell lines.
Adeeb Shehzad, Salman Ul Islam, Jaetae Lee, and Young Sup LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 899-906 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0212
Abstract : Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes tumor-persistent inflammation, frequently resulting in cancer. Curcumin is a diphenolic turmeric that inhibits carcinogenesis and induces apoptosis. PGE2 inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms in colon cancer cells remain unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the survival role of PGE2 and whether addition of exogenous PGE2 affects curcumin-induced cell death. HCT-15 cells were treated with curcumin and PGE2, and protein expression levels were investigated via Western blot. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, and intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels were confirmed using specific dyes. The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA-binding was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). PGE2 inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and degradation of PARP and lamin B. However, exposure of cells to the EP2 receptor antagonist, AH6809, and the PKA inhibitor, H89, before treatment with PGE2 or curcumin abolished the protective effect of PGE2 and enhanced curcumin-induced cell death. PGE2 activates PKA, which is required for cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation of CREB. PGE2 also activated the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, and pretreatment with PD98059 abolished the protective effect of PGE2. Furthermore, curcumin treatment greatly reduced phosphorylation of CREB, followed by a concomitant reduction of NF-κB (p50 and p65) subunit activation. PGE2 markedly activated nuclear translocation of NF-κB. EMSA confirmed the DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits. These results suggest that inhibition of curcumin-induced apoptosis by PGE2 through activation of PKA, Ras, and NF-κB signaling pathways may provide a molecular basis for the reversal of curcumin-induced colon carcinoma cell death.
Ji-Eun Lee, Kyu Eun Cho, Kyung Eun Lee, Jaesang Kim, and Yun Soo BaeMol. Cells 2014; 37(12): 907-911 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0244
Abstract : The function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers in cell differentiation has been demonstrated only for a limited number of cell types. Here, we used a well-established protocol for BMP2-induced neuronal differentiation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) to examine the function of BMP2-induced ROS during the process. We first show that BMP2 indeed induces ROS generation in NCSCs and that blocking ROS generation by pretreatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) as NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor inhibits neuronal differentiation. Among the ROS-generating Nox isozymes, only Nox4 was expressed at a detectable level in NCSCs. Nox4 appears to be critical for survival of NCSCs at least in vitro as down-regulation by RNA interference led to apoptotic response from NCSCs. Interestingly, development of neural crest-derived peripheral neural structures in Nox4?/? mouse appears to be grossly normal, although Nox4?/? embryos were born at a sub-Mendelian ratio and showed delayed over-all development. Specifically, cranial and dorsal root ganglia, derived from NCSCs, were clearly present in Nox4?/? embryo at embryonic days (E) 9.5 and 10.5. These results suggest that Nox4-mediated ROS generation likely plays important role in fate determination and differentiation of NCSCs, but other Nox isozymes play redundant function during embryogenesis.