Jaekwang Kim, Hyejin Yoon, Jacob Basak, and Jungsu KimMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 767-776 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0248
Abstract : Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is clinically characterized with progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature that occurs prior to neurodegeneration and memory dysfunction. Mounting evidence suggests that aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau leads to synaptic deficits and neurodegeneration, thereby to memory loss. Among the established genetic risk factors for AD, the ?4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest genetic risk factor. We and others previously demonstrated that apoE regulates Aβ aggregation and clearance in an isoform-dependent manner. While the effect of apoE on Aβ may explain how apoE isoforms differentially affect AD pathogenesis, there are also other underexplored pathogenic mechanisms. They include differential effects of apoE on cerebral energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, neurovascular function, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. ApoE is a major carrier of cholesterols that are required for neuronal activity and injury repair in the brain. Although there are a few conflicting findings and the underlying mechanism is still unclear, several lines of studies demonstrated that apoE4 leads to synaptic deficits and impairment in long-term potentiation, memory and cognition. In this review, we summarize current understanding of apoE function in the brain, with a particular emphasis on its role in synaptic plasticity and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, involving low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), syndecan, and LRP8/ApoER2.
Hiroshi Mabuchi, Atsushi Nohara, and Akihiro InazuMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 777-784 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0265
Abstract : Epidemiologic studies have shown that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a strong risk factor, whilst high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Therefore, strategies to manage dyslipidemia in an effort to prevent or treat CHD have primarily attempted at decreasing LDL-C and raising HDL-C levels. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the exchange of cholesteryl ester for triglycerides between HDL and VLDL and LDL. We have published the first report indicating that a group of Japanese patients who were lacking CETP had extremely high HDL-C levels, low LDL-C levels and a low incidence of CHD. Animal studies, as well as clinical and epidemiologic evidences, have suggested that inhibition of CETP provides an effective strategy to raise HDL-C and reduce LDL-C levels. Four CETP inhibitors have substantially increased HDL-C levels in dyslipidemic patients. This review will discuss the current status and future prospects of CETP inhibitors in the treatment of CHD. At present anacetrapib by Merck and evacetrapib by Eli Lilly are under development. By 100mg of anacetrapib HDL-C increased by 138%, and LDL-C decreased by 40%. Evacetrapib 500 mg also showed dramatic 132% increase of HDL-C, while LDL-C decreased by 40%. If larger, long-term, randomized, clinical end point trials could corroborate other findings in reducing atherosclerosis, CETP inhibitors could have a significant impact in the management of dyslipidemic CHD patients. Inhibition of CETP synthesis by antisense oligonucleotide or small molecules will produce more similar conditions to human CETP deficiency and may be effective in reducing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. We are expecting the final data of prospective clinical trials by CETP inhibitors in 2015.
Lijun Sun, Yuewen Hao, Rui An, Haixun Li, Cong Xi, and Guohong ShenMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 785-794 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0103
Abstract : Mitophagy, a cellular process that selectively targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation, is currently a hot topic in research into the pathogenesis and treatment of many human diseases. Considering that hypoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which results in cell death, we speculated that selective activation of mitophagy might promote cell survival under hypoxic conditions. In the present study, we introduced the Regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) to initiate the mitophagy pathway and aimed to evaluate the effect of Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy on cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Recombinant adenovirus vectors carrying Rcan1-1L were transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human adult cardiac myocytes. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay and Trypan blue exclusion assay, Rcan1-1L overexpression was found to markedly reverse cell growth inhibition induced by hypoxia. Additionally, Rcan1-1L overexpression inhibited cell apoptosis under hypoxic conditions, as detected by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assay. Meanwhile, the mitochondria-mediated cell apoptotic pathway was inhibited by Rcan1-1L. In contrast, knockdown of Rcan1-1L accelerated hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, Rcan1-1L overexpression significantly reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased depolarized mitochondria, and downregulated ATP and reactive oxygen species production. We further delineated that the loss of mitochondrial mass was due to the activation of mitophagy induced by Rcan1-1L. Rcan1-1L overexpression activated autophagy flux and promoted translocation of the specific mitophagy receptor Parkin into mitochondria from the cytosol, whereas inhibition of autophagy flux resulted in the accumulation of Parkin-loaded mitochondria. Finally, we demonstrated that mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening was significantly increased by Rcan1-1L overexpression, which suggested that Rcan1-1L might evoke mitophagy through regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Taken together, we provide evidence that Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitophagy, which in turn contributes to cell survival under hypoxic conditions, revealing for the first time that Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy may be used for cardioprotection.
Yuhee Chung, Soon Il Kwon, and Sunghwa ChoeMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 795-803 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0127
Abstract : To withstand ever-changing environmental stresses, plants are equipped with phytohormone-mediated stress resistance mechanisms. Salt stress triggers abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which enhances stress tolerance at the expense of growth. ABA is thought to inhibit the action of growth-promoting hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate ABA and BR activity remain to be discovered. We noticed that ABA-treated seedlings exhibited small, round leaves and short roots, a phenotype that is characteristic of the BR signaling mutant,
Young-Hwan Kim, Duck-Sun Ahn, Myeong Ok Kim, Ji-Hyun Joeng, and Seungsoo ChungMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 804-811 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0167
Abstract : The protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is highly expressed in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure via the modulation of peripheral vascular tone. Although several mechanisms have been suggested to explain PAR-2-induced hypotension, the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. To investigate this possibility, we investigated the effects of PAR-2 activation on N-type Ca2+ currents (ICa-N) in isolated neurons of the celiac ganglion (CG), which is involved in the sympathetic regulation of mesenteric artery vascular tone. PAR-2 agonists irreversibly diminished voltage-gated Ca2+ currents (ICa), measured using the patch-clamp method, in rat CG neurons, whereas thrombin had little effect on ICa. This PAR-2-induced inhibition was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, a potent N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suggesting the involvement of N-type Ca2+ channels in PAR-2-induced inhibition. In addition, PAR-2 agonists inhibited ICa?N in a voltage-independent manner in rat CG neurons. Moreover, PAR-2 agonists reduced action potential (AP) firing frequency as measured using the current-clamp method in rat CG neurons. This inhibition of AP firing induced by PAR-2 agonists was almost completely prevented by ω-CgTx, indicating that PAR-2 activation may regulate the membrane excitability of peripheral sympathetic neurons through modulation of N-type Ca2+ channels. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the activation of PAR-2 suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow by modulating N-type Ca2+ channel activity, which appears to be involved in PAR-2-induced hypotension, in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals.
Hui Wang, Changqing Lu, Qing Li, Jun Xie, Tongbing Chen, Yan Tan, Changping Wu, and Jingting JiangMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 812-818 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0210
Abstract : This study was to investigate the mechanism and role of Kif4A in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. Using two human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (with wild-type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (with mutant p53), we quantitated the expression levels of kinesin super-family protein 4A (Kif4A) and poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by Western blot after doxorubicin treatment and examined the apoptosis by flow cytometry after treatment with doxorubicin and PARP-1 inhibitor, 3-Aminobenzamide (3-ABA). Our results showed that doxorubicin treatment could induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the down-regulation of Kif4A and upregulation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The activity of PARP-1 or PARP-1 activation was significantly elevated by doxorubicin treatment in dose- and time-dependent manners (
Kwang-Eun Song, Jaehee Byeon, Dae-Bong Moon, Hyong-Ha Kim, Yoo-Joo Choi, and Jung-Keun SuhMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 819-826 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0214
Abstract : Protein modifications of recombinant pharmaceuticals have been observed both
Hong Sung Kim, and Na Kyung LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 827-832 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0223
Abstract : The balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and destruction of mineralized bone matrix by osteoclasts is important for bone homeostasis. The increase of osteoclast differentiation by RANKL induces bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent studies have shown that insulin is one of main factors mediating the cross-talk between bone remodeling and energy metabolism. However, the systemic examination of insulin-induced differential gene expression profiles in osteoclasts has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the global effects of insulin on osteoclast precursors at the level of gene transcription by microarray analysis. The number of genes that were up-regulated by ≥ 1.5 fold after insulin treatment for 6 h, 12 h, or 24 h was 76, 73, and 39; and 96, 83, and 54 genes were down-regulated, respectively. The genes were classified by 20 biological processes or 24 molecular functions and the number of genes involved in ‘development processes’ and ‘cell proliferation and differentiation’ was 25 and 18, respectively, including Inhba, Socs, Plk3, Tnfsf4, and Plk1. The microarray results of these genes were verified by real-time RT-PCR analysis. We also compared the effects of insulin and RANKL on the expression of these genes. Most genes had a very similar pattern of expressions in insulin- and RANKL-treated cells. Interestingly, Tnfsf4 and Inhba genes were affected by insulin but not by RANKL. Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for insulin in osteoclast biology, thus contributing to the understanding of the pathogenesis and development of therapeutics for numerous bone and metabolic diseases.
Soon-Hee Kim, Joon-Hyun Lee, Kyoung-In Seo, Boyeong Ryu, Yongju Sung, Taijoon Chung, Xing Wang Deng, and Jae-Hoon LeeMol. Cells 2014; 37(11): 833-840 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2014.0224
Abstract : Cullin4-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) is a family of multi-subunit E3 ligases. To investigate the possible involvement of CRL4 in heat stress response, we screened T-DNA insertion mutants of putative CRL4 substrate receptors that exhibited altered patterns in response to heat stress. One of the mutants exhibited heat stress tolerance and was named heat stress tolerant DWD1 (