Eunha Kim, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Haein Lee, and Seyun KimMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 315-321 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0066
Abstract : The inositol polyphosphates are a group of multifunctional signaling metabolites whose synthesis is catalyzed by a family of inositol kinases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) was first identified as a subunit of the arginine-responsive transcription complex in budding yeast. In addition to its role in the production of inositol tetrakis- and pentakisphosphates (IP4 and IP5), IPMK also exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity. Through its PI3-kinase activity, IPMK activates Akt/PKB and its downstream signaling pathways. IPMK also regulates several protein targets non-catalytically via protein-protein interactions. These non-catalytic targets include cytosolic signaling factors and transcription factors in the nucleus. In this review, we highlight the many known functions of mammalian IPMK in controlling cellular signaling networks and discuss future challenges related to clarifying the unknown roles IPMK plays in physiology and disease.
Youngmi Kim, Minjeong Yeon, and Dooil JeoungMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 322-330 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0001
Abstract : This study investigated the role of cancer/testis antigen DDX53 in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties. DDX53 shows co-expression with CD133, a marker for cancer stem cells. DDX53 directly regulates the SOX-2 expression in anticancer drug-resistant Malme3MR cells. DDX53 and miR-200b were found to be involved in the regulation of tumor spheroid forming potential of Malme3M and Malme3MR cells. Furthermore, the self-renewal activity and the tumorigenic potential of Malme3MR-CD133 (+) cells were also regulated by DDX53. A miR-200b inhibitor induced the direct regulation of SOX-2 by DDX53 We therefore, conclude that DDX53 may serve as an immunotherapeutic target for regulating cancer stem-like properties of melanomas.
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, and Jae Young KwonMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 331-338 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0028
Abstract : Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a
Soo-hyun Kim, and Kwang-il LimMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 339-345 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0043
Abstract : Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs. However, both retroviral and lentiviral particles were unstable when pseudotyped with the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins. Therefore, the stabilities of pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors against ultracentrifugation process are a function of not only the type of envelope proteins, but also the type of viral internal core (MLV or HIV-1 core). In addition, the fraction of functional viral particles among genomic viral particles greatly varied at times during packaging, depending on the type of envelope proteins used for pseudotyping and the viral internal core.
Jimin Min, Boram Choi, Tae-Su Han, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Seong-Ho Kong, Yun-Suhk Suh, Tae-Han Kim, Hwi-Nyeong Choe, Woo Ho Kim, Keun Hur, and Han-Kwang YangMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 346-354 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0013
Abstract : Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) is a retrotransposon that contains a CpG island in its 5′-untranslated region. The CpG island of LINE-1 is often heavily methylated in normal somatic cells, which is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. DNA methylation can differ between formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen tissues. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the LINE-1 methylation status between the two tissue-storage conditions in gastric cancer (GC) clinical samples and to evaluate whether LINE-1 can be used as an independent prognostic marker for each tissue-storage type. We analyzed four CpG sites of LINE-1 and examined the methylation levels at these sites in 25 FFPE and 41 frozen GC tissues by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. The LINE-1 methylation status was significantly different between the FFPE and frozen GC tissues (
Dolgorsuren Buyannemekh, and Sang-Uk NhamMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 355-362 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0021
Abstract : The β2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of β2 integrin, αMβ2 and αXβ2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin αXβ2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions.
Haejung Kim, Haein Hwang, Hansoo Lee, and Hyo Jeong HongMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 363-370 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.2282
Abstract : Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), a malignant tumor of biliary origin, has a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. The
Ju Hee Oh, and Na Kyung LeeMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 371-377 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0025
Abstract : Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs). Moreover, the addition of insulin in the presence of RANKL promoted RANK expression. The ability of insulin to regulate RANK expression depends on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) since only PD98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, specifically inhibited its expression by insulin. However, the RANK expression by RANKL was blocked by all three mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases inhibitors. The activation of RANK increased differentiation of BMMs into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) osteoclasts as well as the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and d2 isoform of vacuolar (H+) ATPase (v-ATPase) Vo domain (Atp6v0d2), genes critical for osteoclastic cell-cell fusion. Collectively, these results suggest that insulin induces RANK expression via ERK1/2, which contributes to the enhancement of osteoclast differentiation.
Hongying Zhao, Jun Zhang, Haiyu Shao, Jianwen Liu, Mengran Jin, Jinping Chen, and Yazeng HuangMol. Cells 2017; 40(5): 378-378 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.1303