Taeyoung Koo, Jungjoon Lee, and Jin-Soo KimMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 475-481 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0103
Abstract : Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.
Kazuyuki Kitatani, Makoto Taniguchi, and Toshiro OkazakiMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 482-495 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0118
Abstract : Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
Jaehee Byeon, Yu-Ri Lim, Hyong-Ha Kim, and Jung-Keun SuhMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 496-505 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2256
Abstract : A variant peak was detected in the analysis of RP-HPLC of rHu-EPO, which has about 7% relative content. Fractions of the main and the variant peaks were pooled separately and further analyzed to identify the molecular structure of the variant peak. Total mass analysis for each peak fraction using ESI-TOF MS shows differences in molecular mass. The fraction of the main peak tends to result in higher molecular masses than the fraction of the variant. The detected masses for the variant are about 600?1000 Da smaller than those for the main peak. Peptide mapping analysis for each peak fraction using Asp-N and Glu-C shows differences in O-glycopeptide profiles at Ser126. The O-glycopeptides were not detected in the fraction of the variant. It is concluded that the variant peak is non-O-glycosylated rHu-EPO and the main peak is fully O-glycosylated rHu-EPO at Ser126.
Xiangshu Dong, Ill-Sup Nou, Hankuil Yi, and Yoonkang HurMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 506-517 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2323
Kausik Bishayee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, and Sung-Oh HuhMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 518-527 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.2339
Abstract : Controlled release of medications remains the most convenient way to deliver drugs. In this study, we precipitated gold nanoparticles with quercetin. We loaded gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NQ) and tested the biological activity of NQ on HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells to acquire the sustained release property. We determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy that NQ effectively caused conformational changes in DNA and modulated different proteins related to epigenetic modifications and c ell cycle control. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activity were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the expression profiles of different anti- and pro-apoptotic as well as epigenetic signals were studied by immunoblotting. A cytotoxicity assay indicated that NQ preferentially killed cancer cells, compared to normal cells. NQ interacted with HepG2 cell DNA and reduced histone deacetylases to control cell proliferation and arrest the cell cycle at the sub-G stage. Activities of cell cycle-related proteins, such as p21WAF, cdk1, and pAkt, were modulated. NQ induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by activating p53-ROS crosstalk and induces epigenetic modifications leading to inhibited proliferation and cell cycle arrest.
Su Young Oh, Ji Yoon Seok, Young Sun Choi, Sung Hee Lee, Jong-Sup Bae, and You Mie LeeMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 528-534 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0026
Abstract : Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key regulator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Recent studies have shown that, BIX01294, a G9a histone methyltransferase (HMT)-specific inhibitor, induces apoptosis and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells. However, not many studies have investigated whether inhibition of G9a HMT can modulate HIF-1α stability and angiogenesis. Here, we show that BIX01294 dose-dependently decreases levels of HIF-1α in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The half-life of HIF-1α, expression of proline hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), hydroxylated HIF-1α and von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) under hypoxic conditions were decreased by BIX01294. The mRNA expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also significantly reduced by BIX01294 under hypoxic conditions in HepG2 cells. BIX01294 remarkably decreased angiogenic activity induced by VEGF
So Yeun Kim, Seung-Jun Yoo, Gabriele V Ronnett, Eun-Kyoung Kim, and Cheil MoonMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 535-539 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0038
Abstract : Olfactory stimulation activates multiple signaling cascades in order to mediate activity-driven changes in gene expression that promote neuronal survival. To date, the mechanisms involved in activity-dependent olfactory neuronal survival have yet to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we observed that olfactory sensory stimulation, which caused neuronal activation, promoted activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and the expression of Bcl-2, which were responsible for olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) survival. We demonstrated that Bcl-2 expression increased after odorant stimulation both
Soo-Yeon Lim, and Won MahMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 540-547 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0041
Abstract : Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting approximately 5% of children. However, the neural mechanisms underlying its development and treatment are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that an ADHD mouse model, which harbors a deletion in the
Ki Yeon Kim, Gwanghee Lee, Minsang Yoon, Eun Hye Cho, Chan-Sik Park, and Moon Gyo KimMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 548-561 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0044
Abstract : By combining conventional single cell analysis with flow cytometry and public database searches with bioinformatics tools, we extended the expression profiling of thymic stromal cotransporter (TSCOT), Slc46A2/Ly110, that was shown to be expressed in bipotent precursor and cortical thymic epithelial cells. Genome scale analysis verified
Youngmi Kim, Hyuna Kim, Deokbum Park, and Dooil JeoungMol. Cells 2015; 38(6): 562-572 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2015.0051
Abstract : We previously reported the role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in response to anti-cancer drugs. The decreased expression of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell line is responsible for the resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms associated with regulation of HDAC3 expression. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomal degradation, induced the expression of HDAC3 in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Ubiquitination of HDAC3 was observed in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. HDAC3 showed an interaction with SIAH2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase, that has increased expression in various anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miRNA array analysis showed the decreased expression of miR-335 in these cells. Targetscan analysis predicted the binding of miR-335 to the 3′-UTR of SIAH2. miR-335-mediated increased sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs was associated with its effect on HDAC3 and SIAH2 expression. miR-335 exerted apoptotic effects and inhibited ubiquitination of HDAC3 in anti-cancer drug-resistant cancer cell lines. miR-335 negatively regulated the invasion, migration, and growth rate of cancer cells. The mouse xenograft model showed that miR-335 negatively regulated the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. The down-regulation of SIAH2 conferred sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs. The results of the study indicated that the miR-335/SIAH2/HDAC3 axis regulates the response to anti-cancer drugs.