Vol.46 No.11, November 30, 2023
Abstract : Autophagy dysfunction is associated with human diseases and conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic issues, and chronic infections. Additionally, the decline in autophagic activity contributes to tissue and organ dysfunction and aging-related diseases. Several factors, such as down-regulation of autophagy components and activators, oxidative damage, microinflammation, and impaired autophagy flux, are linked to autophagy decline. An autophagy flux impairment (AFI) has been implicated in neurological disorders and in certain other pathological conditions. Here, to enhance our understanding of AFI, we conducted a comprehensive literature review of findings derived from two well-studied cellular stress models: glucose deprivation and replicative senescence. Glucose deprivation is a condition in which cells heavily rely on oxidative phosphorylation for ATP generation. Autophagy is activated, but its flux is hindered at the autolysis step, primarily due to an impairment of lysosomal acidity. Cells undergoing replicative senescence also experience AFI, which is also known to be caused by lysosomal acidity failure. Both glucose deprivation and replicative senescence elevate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), affecting lysosomal acidification. Mitochondrial alterations play a crucial role in elevating ROS generation and reducing lysosomal acidity, highlighting their association with autophagy dysfunction and disease conditions. This paper delves into the underlying molecular and cellular pathways of AFI in glucose-deprived cells, providing insights into potential strategies for managing AFI that is driven by lysosomal acidity failure. Furthermore, the investigation on the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction sheds light on the potential effectiveness of modulating mitochondrial function to overcome AFI, offering new possibilities for therapeutic interventions.
Abstract : The proper maintenance of mRNA quality that is regulated by diverse surveillance pathways is essential for cellular homeostasis and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. Here, we review findings regarding the role of mRNA quality control in the aging and longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans, an outstanding model for aging research. We discuss the recently discovered functions of the proper regulation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, ribosome-associated quality control, and mRNA splicing in the aging of C. elegans. We describe how mRNA quality control contributes to longevity conferred by various regimens, including inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling, dietary restriction, and reduced mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling. This review provides valuable information regarding the relationship between the mRNA quality control and aging in C. elegans, which may lead to insights into healthy longevity in complex organisms, including humans.
Abstract : Accumulation of pathogenic amyloid-β disrupts the tight junction of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), one of its senescence-like structural alterations. In the clearance of amyloid-β, the autophagy-lysosome pathway plays the crucial role. In this context, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibits the process of autophagy and lysosomal degradation, acting as a potential therapeutic target for age-associated disorders. However, efficacy of targeting mTOR to treat age-related macular degeneration remains largely elusive. Here, we validated the therapeutic efficacy of the mTOR inhibitors, Torin and PP242, in clearing amyloid-β by inducing the autophagy-lysosome pathway in a mouse model with pathogenic amyloid-β with tight junction disruption of RPE, which is evident in dry age-related macular degeneration. High concentration of amyloid-β oligomers induced autophagy-lysosome pathway impairment accompanied by the accumulation of p62 and decreased lysosomal activity in RPE cells. However, Torin and PP242 treatment restored the lysosomal activity via activation of LAMP2 and facilitated the clearance of amyloid-β in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, clearance of amyloid-β by Torin and PP242 ameliorated the tight junction disruption of RPE in vivo. Overall, our findings suggest mTOR inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy for the restoration of tight junctions in age-related macular degeneration.
Hyun Ju Yoo , Yeogyeong Yi , Yoorha Kang , Su Jung Kim , Young-In Yoon , Phuc Huu Tran , Taewook Kang , Min Kyung Kim , Jaeseok Han , Eunyoung Tak , Chul-Soo Ahn , Gi-Won Song , Gil-Chun Park , Sung-Gyu Lee , Jae-Joong Kim , Dong-Hwan Jung , Shin Hwang , and Nayoung KimMol. Cells 2023; 46(11): 688-699 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2023.0104
Abstract : We set up this study to understand the underlying mechanisms of reduced ceramides on immune cells in acute rejection (AR). The concentrations of ceramides and sphingomyelins were measured in the sera from hepatic transplant patients, skin graft mice and hepatocyte transplant mice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum concentrations of C24 ceramide, C24:1 ceramide, C16:0 sphingomyelin, and C18:1 sphingomyelin were lower in liver transplantation (LT) recipients with than without AR. Comparisons with the results of LT patients with infection and cardiac transplant patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy in humans and in mouse skin graft and hepatocyte transplant models suggested that the reduced C24 and C24:1 ceramides were specifically involved in AR. A ceramide synthase inhibitor, fumonisin B1 exacerbated allogeneic immune responses in vitro and in vivo, and reduced tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs), while increased P3-like plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in the draining lymph nodes from allogeneic skin graft mice. The results of mixed lymphocyte reactions with ceranib-2, an inhibitor of ceramidase, and C24 ceramide also support that increasing ceramide concentrations could benefit transplant recipients with AR. The results suggest increasing ceramides as novel therapeutic target for AR, where reduced ceramides were associated with the changes in DC subsets, in particular tDCs.
Abstract : Mucus hyperproduction and hypersecretion are observed often in respiratory diseases. MUC8 is a glycoprotein synthesized by epithelial cells and generally expressed in the respiratory track. However, the physiological mechanism by which extracellular nucleotides induce MUC8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells is unclear. Here, we show that UTP could induce MUC8 gene expression through P2Y2-PLCβ3-Ca2+ activation. Because the full-length cDNA sequence of MUC8 has not been identified, a specific siRNA-MUC8 was designed based on the partial cDNA sequence of MUC8. siRNA-MUC8 significantly increased TNF-α production and decreased IL-1Ra production, suggesting that MUC8 may downregulate UTP/P2Y2-induced airway inflammation. Interestingly, the PDZ peptide of ZO-1 protein strongly abolished UTP-induced TNF-α production and increased IL-1Ra production and MUC8 gene expression. In addition, the PDZ peptide dramatically increased the levels of UTP-induced ZO proteins and TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance). These results show that the anti-inflammatory mucin MUC8 may contribute to homeostasis, and the PDZ peptide can be a novel therapeutic candidate for UTP-induced airway inflammation.
Abstract : The plant defense responses to microbial infection are tightly regulated and integrated with the developmental program for optimal resources allocation. Notably, the defense- associated hormone salicylic acid (SA) acts as a promoter of flowering while several plant pathogens actively target the flowering signaling pathway to promote their virulence or dissemination. Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum inject tens of effectors in the host cells that collectively promote bacterial proliferation in plant tissues. Here, we characterized the function of the broadly conserved R. pseudosolanacearum effector RipL, through heterologous expression in Arabidopsis thaliana . RipL-expressing transgenic lines presented a delayed flowering, which correlated with a low expression of flowering regulator genes. Delayed flowering was also observed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently expressing RipL. In parallel, RipL promoted plant susceptibility to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae in the effector-expressing lines or when delivered by the type III secretion system. Unexpectedly, SA accumulation and SA-dependent immune signaling were not significantly affected by RipL expression. Rather, the RNA-seq analysis of infected RipL-expressing lines revealed that the overall amplitude of the transcriptional response was dampened, suggesting that RipL could promote plant susceptibility in an SA-independent manner. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning RipL effect on flowering and immunity may reveal novel effector functions in host cells.
Min Ji Park, Eunji Jeong, Eun Ji Lee, Hyeon Ji Choi, Bo Hyun Moon, Keunsoo Kang, and Suhwan ChangMol. Cells 2023; 46(11): 725-725 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2023.2174.e
Ji-Young Kim, Ji-Hye Jung, Seung-Joon Lee, Seon-Sook Han, and Seok-Ho HongMol. Cells 2022;45: 869-876 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0109
Jung Ah Kim, Sung-Hee Kim, Jung Seon Seo, Hyuna Noh, Haengdueng Jeong, Jiseon Kim, Donghun Jeon, Jeong Jin Kim, Dain On, Suhyeon Yoon, Sang Gyu Lee, Youn Woo Lee, Hui Jeong Jang, In Ho Park, Jooyeon Oh, Sang-Hyuk Seok, Yu Jin Lee, Seung-Min Hong, Se-Hee An, Joon-Yong Bae, Jung-ah Choi, Seo Yeon Kim, Young Been Kim, Ji-Yeon Hwang, Hyo-Jung Lee, Hong Bin Kim, Dae Gwin Jeong, Daesub Song, Manki Song, Man-Seong Park, Kang-Seuk Choi, Jun Won Park, Jun-Won Yun, Jeon-Soo Shin, Ho-Young Lee, Jun-Young Seo, Ki Taek Nam, Heon Yung Gee, and Je Kyung SeongMol. Cells 2022;45: 896-910 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0089
Bor Luen TangMol. Cells 2016;39: 87-95 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0089
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Mira Ham, and Jae Bum KimMol. Cells 2014;37: 365-371 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0089