Abstract : Cells are designed to be sensitive to a myriad of external cues so they can fulfil their individual destiny as part of the greater whole. A number of well-characterised signalling pathways dictate the cell’s response to the external environment and incoming messages. In healthy, well-ordered homeostatic systems these signals are tightly controlled and kept in balance. However, given their powerful control over cell fate, these pathways, and the transcriptional machinery they orchestrate, are frequently hijacked during the development of neoplastic disease. A prime example is the Wnt signalling pathway that can be modulated by a variety of ligands and inhibitors, ultimately exerting its effects through the β-catenin transcription factor and its downstream target genes. Here we focus on the interplay between the three-member family of RUNX transcription factors with the Wnt pathway and how together they can influence cell behaviour and contribute to cancer development. In a recurring theme with other signalling systems, the RUNX genes and the Wnt pathway appear to operate within a series of feedback loops. RUNX genes are capable of directly and indirectly regulating different elements of the Wnt pathway to either strengthen or inhibit the signal. Equally, β-catenin and its transcriptional co-factors can control RUNX gene expression and together they can collaborate to regulate a large number of third party co-target genes.
Abstract : Comprehensive inhibition of RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3 led to marked cell suppression compared with inhibition of RUNX1 alone, clarifying that the RUNX family members are important for proliferation and maintenance of diverse cancers, and “cluster regulation of RUNX (CROX)” is a very effective strategy to suppress cancer cells. Recent studies reported by us and other groups suggested that wild-type RUNX1 is needed for survival and proliferation of certain types of leukemia, lung cancer, gastric cancer, etc. and for their one of metastatic target sites such as born marrow endothelial niche, suggesting that RUNX1 often functions oncogenic manners in cancer cells. In this review, we describe the significance and paradoxical requirement of RUNX1 tumor suppressor in leukemia and even solid cancers based on recent our findings such as “genetic compensation of RUNX family transcription factors (the compensation mechanism for the total level of RUNX family protein expression)”, “RUNX1 inhibition-induced inhibitory effects on leukemia cells and on solid cancers through p53 activation”, and “autonomous feedback loop of RUNX1-p53-CBFB in acute myeloid leukemia cells”. Taken together, these findings identify a crucial role for the RUNX cluster in the maintenance and progression of cancers and suggest that modulation of the RUNX cluster using the pyrrole-imidazole polyamide gene-switch technology is a potential novel therapeutic approach to control cancers.
Dohun Kim, You-Soub Lee, Duk-Hwan Kim, and Suk-Chul BaeMol. Cells 2020; 43(1): 1-9 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.2246
Abstract : The first step in treating lung cancer is to establish the stage of the disease, which in turn determines the treatment options and prognosis of the patient. Many factors are involved in lung cancer staging, but all involve anatomical information. However, new approaches, mainly those based on the molecular biology of cancer, have recently changed the paradigm for lung cancer treatment and have not yet been incorporated into staging. In a group of patients of the same stage who receive the same treatment, some may experience unexpected recurrence or metastasis, largely because current staging methods do not reflect the findings of molecular biological studies. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the latest research on lung cancer staging and the molecular events associated with carcinogenesis. We hope that this paper will serve as a bridge between clinicians and basic researchers and aid in our understanding of lung cancer.
Dong-Hyung Cho, Jin Kyung Kim, and Eun-Kyeong JoMol. Cells 2020; 43(1): 10-22 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.2329
Abstract : Mitochondria have several quality control mechanisms by which they maintain cellular homeostasis and ensure that the molecular machinery is protected from stress. Mitophagy, selective autophagy of mitochondria, promotes mitochondrial quality control by inducing clearance of damaged mitochondria via the autophagic machinery. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitophagy is modulated by various microbial components in an attempt to affect the innate immune response to infection. In addition, mitophagy plays a key role in the regulation of inflammatory signaling, and mitochondrial danger signals such as mitochondrial DNA translocated into the cytosol can lead to exaggerated inflammatory responses. In this review, we present current knowledge on the functional aspects of mitophagy and its crosstalk with innate immune signaling during infection. A deeper understanding of the role of mitophagy could facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against various infections.
Chanhee KangMol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 821-827 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0298
Abstract : Aging is the most important single risk factor for many chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative disorders. Targeting aging itself might, therefore, be a better strategy than targeting each chronic disease individually for enhancing human health. Although much should be achieved for completely understanding the biological basis of aging, cellular senescence is now believed to mainly contribute to organismal aging via two independent, yet not mutually exclusive mechanisms: on the one hand, senescence of stem cells leads to exhaustion of stem cells and thus decreases tissue regeneration. On the other hand, senescent cells secrete many proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases, collectively termed as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which causes chronic inflammation and tissue dysfunction. Much effort has been recently made to therapeutically target detrimental effects of cellular senescence including selectively eliminating senescent cells (senolytics) and modulating a proinflammatory senescent secretome (senostatics). Here, we discuss current progress and limitations in understanding molecular mechanisms of senolytics and senostatics and therapeutic strategies for applying them. Furthermore, we propose how these novel interventions for aging treatment could be improved, based on lessons learned from cancer treatment.
Kyung Won KimMol. Cells 2019; 42(12): 828-835 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0241
Abstract : PIWI Argonaute proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are expressed in all animal species and play a critical role in cellular defense by inhibiting the activation of transposable elements in the germline. Recently, new evidence suggests that PIWI proteins and piRNAs also play important roles in various somatic tissues, including neurons. This review summarizes the neuronal functions of the PIWI-piRNA pathway in multiple animal species, including their involvement in axon regeneration, behavior, memory formation, and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of adaptive memory. This review also discusses the consequences of dysregulation of neuronal PIWI-piRNA pathways in certain neurological disorders, including neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. A full understanding of neuronal PIWI-piRNA pathways will ultimately provide novel insights into small RNA biology and could potentially provide precise targets for therapeutic applications.
Woojin Jeong, Hyein Lee, Sukhee Cho, and Jinsoo SeoMol. Cells 2019; 42(11): 739-746 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0200
Abstract : Significant knowledge about the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been gained in the last century; however, the understanding of its causes of onset remains limited. Late-onset AD is observed in about 95% of patients, and
Heeju Ryu, Jiyeon Kim, Daehong Kim, Jeong-Eun Lee, and Yeonseok ChungMol. Cells 2019; 42(11): 747-754 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0196
Abstract : The incidence of atherosclerosis is higher among patients with several autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is well documented that innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells sense lipid species such as saturated fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, whether a hyperlipidemic environment also impacts autoimmune T cell responses has been unclear. Among CD4+ T cells, Th17 and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are known to play pathogenic roles in the development of hyperlipidemia-associated autoimmune diseases. This review gives an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysregulated lipid metabolism impacts the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, with specific emphasis on Th17 and Tfh cells.
Hak Kyun KimMol. Cells 2019; 42(10): 687-692 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2019.0214
Abstract : Transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play a role in various cellular processes. Accumulating evidence has revealed that tsRNAs are deeply implicated in human diseases, such as various cancers and neurological disorders, suggesting that tsRNAs should be investigated to develop novel therapeutic intervention. tsRNAs provide more complexity to the physiological role of transfer RNAs by repressing or activating protein synthesis with distinct mechanisms. Here, we highlight the detailed mechanism of tsRNA-mediated dual regulation in protein synthesis and discuss the necessity of novel sequencing technology to learn more about tsRNAs.
Bonsang Koo, Baekgyu Choi, Hoewon Park, and Ki-Jun YoonMol. Cells 2019; 42(9): 617-627
Abstract : Brain organoids are an exciting new technology with the potential to significantly change our understanding of the development and disorders of the human brain. With step-by-step differentiation protocols, three-dimensional neural tissues are self-organized from pluripotent stem cells, and recapitulate the major millstones of human brain development
Abstract : Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are nonselective cationic channels, conserved among flies to humans. Most TRP channels have well known functions in chemosensation, thermosensation, and mechanosensation. In addition to being sensing environmental changes, many TRP channels are also internal sensors that help maintain homeostasis. Recent improvements to analytical methods for genomics and metabolomics allow us to investigate these channels in both mutant animals and humans. In this review, we discuss three aspects of TRP channels, which are their role in metabolism, their functional characteristics, and their role in metabolic syndrome. First, we introduce each TRP channel superfamily and their particular roles in metabolism. Second, we provide evidence for which metabolites TRP channels affect, such as lipids or glucose. Third, we discuss correlations between TRP channels and obesity, diabetes, and mucolipidosis. The cellular metabolism of TRP channels gives us possible therapeutic approaches for an effective prophylaxis of metabolic syndromes.
Abstract : As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by
Bo Kyung Yoon, Tae Gyu Oh, Seonghyeon Bu, Kyung Jin Seo, Se Hwan Kwon, Ji Yoon Lee, Yeumin Kim, Jae-woo Kim, Hyo-Suk Ahn, and Sungsoon FangMol. Cells 2022;45: 738-748 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0031
Sang-Min Kang, Ji-Young Park, Hee-Jeong Han, Byeong-Min Song, Dongseob Tark, Byeong-Sun Choi, and Soon B. HwangMol. Cells 2022;45: 702-717 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0018
Bor Luen TangMol. Cells 2016;39: 87-95 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0018
Jin Young Huh, Yoon Jeong Park, Mira Ham, and Jae Bum KimMol. Cells 2014;37: 365-371 https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2022.0018