Key to the transduction of signals from the environment to the cell nucleus are enzymes that post-translationally modify proteins. Modifications such as protein phosphorylation have long been known to regulate protein interactions, stability, and localization, as well as enzyme activity. Recent investigations into how cells respond to varying oxygen levels have identified a new mechanism for regulating signal transduction involving the post-translational hydroxylation of proline. The enzymes that catalyze this reaction comprise a novel family of prolyl hydroxylases, which include a growth-factor-responsive and cell-death-re-lated protein (SM-20) in mammals, and a protein (EGL-9) in C. elegans important for normal egg laying.
30 September 2014 Volume 37, Number 9, pp. 637~704