Mol. Cells 2012; 34(3): 279~287  DOI: 10.1007/s10059-012-0103-5
Rhythmic Oscillation of Histone Acetylation and Methylation at the Arabidopsis Central Clock Loci
Hae-Ryong Song1,2, and Yoo-Sun Noh1,3,*
1School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea, 2Biosafety Research Team, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-708, Korea, 3Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
*Correspondence: ysnoh@snu.ac.kr
Received April 9, 2012; Revised July 12, 2012; Accepted July 16, 2012.; Published online August 8, 2012.
© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.

ABSTRACT
Circadian clock genes are regulated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. In Arabidopsis, LATE ELON-GATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSO- CIATED 1 (CCA1) transcripts are highly expressed in the morning. Translated LHY and CCA1 proteins repress the expression of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1), which peaks in the evening. TOC1 protein induces expression of LHY and CCA1, forming a negative feedback loop which is believed to constitute the oscillatory mechanism of the clock. The rhythmic oscillation of mouse clock genes mPERIOD 1 (mPER1) and mPER2 has been correlated with regular alteration of chromatin structure through histone acetylation/deacetylation. However, little is known about the relationship between the transcriptional activity of Arabidopsis clock genes and their chromatin status. Here, we report that histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) and H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) levels at LHY, CCA1, and TOC1 are positively correlated with the rhythmic transcript levels of these genes, whereas H3K36me2 level shows a negative correlation. Thus, our study suggests rhythmic transcription of Arabidopsis clock genes might be regulated by rhythmic histone modification, and it provides a platform for future identification of clock-control-ling histone modifiers.
Keywords: Arabidopsis, chromatin, circadian clock, circadian rhythm, histone modification


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