OASL1 Traps Viral RNAs in Stress Granules to Promote Antiviral Responses
Ji-Seon Kang1,3, Yune-Sahng Hwang2,6, Lark Kyun Kim3, Sujung Lee4, Wook-Bin Lee1,5, Jeongsil Kim-Ha4,*, and Young-Joon Kim1,2,*
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea, 2Department for Integrated OMICs for Biomedical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea, 3Severance Biomedical Science Institute and BK21 PLUS project to Medical Sciences, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06230, Korea, 4Department of Integrative Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Sejong University, Seoul 05006, Korea, 5Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung 25451, Korea, 6Present Address: Department of Molecular Biosciences, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA
*Correspondence: jsha@sejong.ac.kr (JK-H); yjkim@yonsei.ac.kr (YJK) 
Received November 8, 2017; Revised December 1, 2017; Accepted December 17, 2017.; Published online February 21, 2018.
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Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) protein family is the major interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes responsible for the activation of RNase L pathway upon viral infection. OAS-like (OASL) is also required for inhibition of viral growth in human cells, but the loss of one of its mouse homolog, OASL1, causes a severe defect in termination of type I interferon production. To further investigate the antiviral activity of OASL1, we examined its subcellular localization and regulatory roles in IFN production in the early and late stages of viral infection. We found OASL1, but not OASL2, formed stress granules trapping viral RNAs and promoted efficient RLR signaling in early stages of infection. Stress granule formation was dependent on RNA binding activity of OASL1. But in the late stages of infection, OASL1 interacted with IRF7 transcripts to inhibit translation resulting in down regulation of IFN production. These results implicate that OASL1 plays context dependent functions in the antiviral response for the clearance and resolution of viral infections.  
Keywords: anti-viral response, OASL1, stress granule, type I interferon   

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28 February 2018 Volume 41,
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