Assessment of the Therapeutic Potential of Persimmon Leaf Extract on Prediabetic Subjects
Mohd M. Khan1,6, Bao Quoc Tran1,7, Yoon-Jin Jang2, Soo-Hyun Park3, William E. Fondrie4,
Khadiza Chowdhury4, Sung Hwan Yoon1, David R. Goodlett1, Soo-Wan Chae2,3, Han-Jung Chae2,
Seung-Young Seo5,*, and Young Ah Goo1,8,*
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA,
2Department of Pharmacology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 54907, Korea, 3Clinical Trial Center for
Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 54907, Korea, 4University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore,
MD 21201, USA, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University
Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju 54907, Korea, 6Present address: University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore,
MD 21201, USA, 7Present address: U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Gunpowder, MD 21010, USA, 8Present
address: Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
*Correspondence: young.goo@northwestern.edu (YAG); bear7905@naver.com (SYS)
Received December 12, 2016; Revised May 12, 2017; Accepted May 15, 2017.; Published online July 6, 2017.
© Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).
ABSTRACT
Dietary supplements have exhibited myriads of positive health effects on human health conditions and with the advent of new technological advances, including in the fields of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics, biological and pharmacological activities of dietary supplements are being evaluated for their ameliorative effects in human ailments. Recent interests in understanding and discovering the molecular targets of phytochemical-gene-protein-metabolite dynamics resulted in discovery of a few protein signature candidates that could potentially be used to assess the effects of dietary supplements on human health. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a folk medicine, commonly used as dietary supplement in China, Japan, and South Korea, owing to its different beneficial health effects including anti-diabetic implications. However, neither mechanism of action nor molecular biomarkers have been discovered that could either validate or be used to evaluate effects of persimmon on human health. In present study, Mass Spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic studies were accomplished to discover proteomic molecular signatures that could be used to understand therapeutic potentials of persimmon leaf extract (PLE) in diabetes amelioration. Saliva, serum, and urine samples were analyzed and we propose that salivary proteins can be used for evaluating treatment effectiveness and in improving patient compliance. The present discovery proteomics study demonstrates that salivary proteomic profile changes were found as a result of PLE treatment in prediabetic subjects that could specifically be used as potential protein signature candidates.
Keywords: biomarker candidates, diabetes, mass spectrometry, persimmon leaf extract, proteomics, saliva, serum, urine


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