Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Cell attachment and fusion of SARS-CoV-2. (A) SARS-CoV-2 particles are spherical (60 to 140 nm in diameter) with spike proteins (S) protruding from the surface of virion. The S is densely glycosylated by O- and N-linked glycans (green color) that potentially mask the immunogenic nature of the S protein during infection. The S1 domain of S anchors the virus to the host cells, and the S2 domain of S establishes membrane fusion. TMPRSS2 and furin cleave the S1 domain of S, thereby priming the S2 domain for membrane fusion. (B) The virus is engulfed through endocytosis or the direct membrane fusion at the cell surface. After S1 cleavage, S2 domain undergoes conformational re-arrangement and exposes fusion peptides (FPs) for anchoring into the host cell membrane; the HR1 and HR2 motifs fold and bring the viral and host membrane close for fusion. HE, hemagglutinin-esterase; M, membrane protein; N, nucleocapsid; E, envelope; NTD, N-terminal domain; RBD, receptor-binding domain; HR, heptad repeat; RBM, receptor-binding motif; TM, transmembrane; CP, cytoplasmic domain; TMPRSS2, trans-membrane protease, serine 2.
Mol. Cells 2021;44:408~421
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