Molecules and Cells

Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 0219-1032   pISSN 1016-8478

Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. (A) A schematic diagram detailing the fabrication of the mineralized alginate-chitosan beads and analysis. Mineralized polysaccharide beads were cultured in static or dynamic conditions. Transplanted beads were cultured in static conditions for one day before implantation. In this study, we looked at cell osteoinduction in 3-types of alginate microenvironment differing in ECM components. We compared the effectiveness of BM and BMP-2 in alginate beads to differentiate MSCs into osteogenic cells and osteoid tissue. (B) Standardized bead shape, size, shell structure and internal architecture of alginate beads; (i) Single alginate bead measuring 1 mm in diameter; (ii) light microscope image in polarized light to highlight the semi-crystalline structure of the calcium phosphate/ chitosan shell surrounding the alginate core (white arrow). (iii) Histological thin section of a single bead to demonstrate the internal architecture and external morphology; (iv) a single H & E stained sectioned bead to show the distribution of a fully loaded capsule for cell culture; (C) a diagrammatic representation of the four different types of augmented bead environments used in the study; (D) H&E staining of capsules containing hMSCs at different time points in the four individual bead microenvironments (BMP-2 added, BM proteins added, guest, added and normal alginate) to show the changes in cell distribution, density and proliferation. hMSCs inside BMP-2 beads, guest BMP-2 beads, and BM beads increased cell numbers compared to alginate beads. Also, in control group, hMSCs inside alginate beads distributed well separated and did not form clusters compared experiment groups. (E) hMSC numbers increased significantly in the guest BMP-2 beads and the BM beads compared to the MSCs beads and the BMP-2 beads. (* = Guest BMP-2 bead) (Scale bar = 200 μm).
Mol. Cells 2018;41:1016~1023
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