Molecules and Cells

Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 0219-1032   pISSN 1016-8478

Fig. 5.

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Fig. 5. (A to C) Larvae of the indicated genotypes were collected at the early (~74 h AEL) and late (~94 h AEL) 3rd instar stage. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed to measure the relative mRNA levels of phm (A), E74 (B), and ptth (C). Values are presented as mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. * indicates statistically significant difference (Student’s t test: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001). (D) Proposed model for delayed pupariation (P) in mkrn1exS. Larval to pupal maturation is controlled by ecdysone hormone released from the prothoracic gland (PG). Ecdysone synthesis in the PG is catalyzed by a sequence of reactions mediated by enzymes encoded by the Halloween family of genes. The transcription of Halloween enzymes is controlled by upstreaming factors. In control larvae, PTTH regulate Halloween enzyme transcription through Ras/Raf signaling once the animal completes the enough larval growth. In addition, nutritional condition influences the Halloween enzyme transcription through insulin and Tor signaling. In mkrn1exS, the loss of MKRN1 might reduce insulin/Tor signaling likely by stabilizing negative regulators of insulin/Tor signaling (dashed blue arrow) (; , See Discussion), thereby downregulates the transcription of Halloween enzyme (straight blue arrow), which results in the lengthening of 3rd instar larval duration (dark grey rectangle). E, embryo; L1, 1st instar larvae; L2, 2nd instar larvae; L3, 3rd instar larvae; IPC, insulin producing cells.
Mol. Cells 2018;41:1024~1032
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