Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Tissue clearing techniques. (A) Light scattering in biological tissues can be reduced by removal of lipid and RI matching. (B) Simple immersion in a high-RI aqueous solution renders the tissue modestly transparent by homogenizing scattering throughout the sample. (C) Delipidation and dehydration/hyperhydration followed by refractive index matching. (Top) For solvent-based clearing, the tissue is incubated in dehydrating solvent for delipidation and dehydration, and is moved to a high-RI clearing solvent where RI matching and additional delipidation occur. (Bottom) The sample is placed in an aqueous solution that contains high concentration of non-ionic detergent and denaturant, where delipidation, hyperhydration, and RI matching take place. (D) A biological sample is first transformed into a tissue-gel hybrid by hydrogel embedding (Top) or glutaraldehyde fixation (Bottom), where the gel network increases the tissue integrity. The tissue-gel hybrid then can withstand extensive delipidation by incubation in ionic detergent (SDS) assisted by electrophoresis or heating.
Mol. Cells 2016;39:439~446
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